CHAPTER ONE [Pages 1-11]





(General introduction – Character of the Book of Daniel – World-Power – Scope of the Book – Daniel’s Mission – Character of Daniel – The Thesis.)




The prophets of the Old Testament in a marked and special manner looked forward into the future. They personated and expressed the Hope of Israel and the kingdom of God.  Standing on their lofty watch-towers, and looking to the farthest horizon, they saw events unseen by ordinary men, and spoke of things to come long after the generations they served had passed to the tomb.  They were the first in antiquity to perceive that the old East was dead.  They celebrated its obsequies in advance of the dissolution they saw to be inevitable.  They were the tragic chorus of the awful drama that was unfolding itself in the Eastern world.  As kingdom after kingdom passed away, they sang the funeral dirge of each.  There can be no question that the book of Daniel, containing the first mention of the great idea of the succession of the ages and of the growth of empires and races, is the first outline of the philosophy of history.”


                                                                                                                         - Dean Stanley.












By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down; yea, we wept when we remembered Zion.  We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof.  For there they that carried us away captive required of us a song; and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion!  How shall we sing the Lord’s song in a strange land?  If 1 forget thee, 0 Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning!  If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy!” (Ps. 137: 1-6.)


Such is the pathetic lamentation of a sweet but sorrow-smitten minstrel of Israel, expert in song and skilful with the harp, telling the grief of his people in the hour of their humiliation.  The holy temple, the sanctuary of God and the central shrine of Israel’s worship, had disappeared in flame and smoke.  Divine judgment had destroyed the “city of the Great King.”  The temple vessels, and the people, had been borne away captive into Babylon to grace the triumph of a heathen ruler.  The instrument in God’s hand for the execution of this judgment was Nebuchadnezzar, the crown-prince of the Chaldean empire.  Three times he came as a conqueror and took Jerusalem; the first time, B.C. 606, deporting Daniel and his companions; the second time, B.C. 598, Ezekiel and a larger number; the third time, B.C. 587, burning the city, and completing the captivity.  To celebrate the anniversary of his conquest and the consolidation of his empire, he erected a golden image of himself upon the plains of Dura, summoned a State concert, and at the sound of his royal band of music, demanded universal homage to his person, on pain of death for refusal.


For seventy years the Jews were delivered to the Chaldean power.  At such a time the Lord raised up “Daniel the Prophet” to foretell the course and doom of all Gentile empires, and the final triumph of the chosen people and of the kingdom of God.  In connection with certain miraculous events of his time, the Book of Daniel makes known to us the Divine communications he received, unveiling the whole future down to the Second Coming of Christ.  Its religious and political importance are recognised by all the world.  It tells that the  Lord’s song” will first be sung by Israelin the land of Judah,” when Israel has, returned to faith in Christ, and all Gentile kingdoms have been overthrown. (Is. 25: 1; 26: 1-21; Dan. 2: 44; 7: 13, 25-27)


The canonicity and inspiration of the book of Daniel are established by testimonies more numerous and varied than can be claimed for any other sacred writing.  They come from the pens of inspired prophets and historians, and from the whole body of Jewish literature subsequent to the close of Old Testament prediction. Chaldean, Persian, Greek, and Roman authors have confirmed its statements.  Centuries have verified its prophecies.  The lips of Christ, Peter, Paul, John and the evangelists, have borne witness to its truth.  The entire New Testament is effulgent with ‘its eschatology.  The early Church teachers, with rare devotion, applied themselves to search diligently and understand its contents, and held it aloft as a shining proof of the Christian faith.  Schoolmen and reformers studied it with deepest interest.  Jews, Christians and Mohammedans, Catholics and Protestants alike, have vied with each other to explore its mysteries.


From B.C. 534 to A.D. 1898, through 2,400 years, more than ten thousand volumes have been written as a tribute to the worth and world-wide significance of the book of Daniel, and, in our generation, the monuments of Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Armenia and Egypt have united to do it honour.  Holy men to-day realise the fact that in this book was concealed a sun of surpassing brilliance, whose light should burst forth in the “Time of the End” and irradiate with its splendour the eyes of all whose blessedness it is to seek it.  It claims to be a faithful chronicle of events transcending the possibilities of all ordinary occurrence, a revelation also from heaven, and, in large part, a word spoken by angels.  In it we read histories the most marvellous, and prophecies whose far-sightedness outstrips the utmost reach of human genius, forecast and sagacity.  It provides the most brilliant confirmation of the inspiration of the prophets.  It discloses the only true philosophy of history, unveils a procession of the ages, publishes an, almanac of time, and sets before us a moving panorama of marching empires and of rising and falling kingdoms, covering already nearly 2,500 years.  It foretells many events, three-fourths of which have been fulfilled.  It supports its omniscient predictions by omnipotent deeds placed alongside of them as pledges of their accomplishment, the supernatural in the one case, the proof of it in the other.  In an honest mind un-swayed by prejudice and false science it compels belief.  Its grasp is the grasp of the Almighty.


Like a blazing head-light cast across the centuries and illuminating the whole track of time, shines the announcement that human history is the result neither of chance nor fatality, nor of man’s will alone; that the events of nations and the actions of men, although the product of their own free will, are yet pursuant to a pre-determined plan of God, Most High, who “removes and sets up kings, gives wisdom, to the wise and knowledge to them that understand; who reveals secrets, knows what is in the darkness, and in whom light dwells;” that history has an appointed goal to which it must attain, and that the rise, rule and revolution of empires, their apogee, decline and fall, have already been decreed and recorded, and must eventuate according to the will of God.  In the most solemn manner it emphasises the truth that God, Most High, is “Governor among the nations,” greater than Bel, Nebo, Istar or Merodach, or all the gods of the heathen, a Power superior to all the “Powers,” a “Power that makes for righteousness,” and walks through history; that while rewarding the good He punishes the evil; that for every crime committed by nations, governments or men, for every wrong abetted or inflicted, for every unrighteous deed, for every policy of pride and greed, of selfishness, oppression of the poor and the weak, for every indifference to distress, for every act of cruelty and ambitious lust of territory, wealth and supremacy, Justice will exact a righteous retribution; and that the one consolation left to sufferers amid all the complications that perplex the diplomacies of nations, retard the relief of un-avenged humanity, and try the patience of God’s children, is the deep conviction that such will be the case.


No sublimer moral truth ever passed the lips of any writer.  What the Greek tragedy attributed to blind “Justice” standing behind every scene, and to “Necessity” behind Justice, the prophet describes as the work of a free, intelligent and overruling Power, “God, Most High,” omnipotent and irresistible.  Wickedness may seem to triumph for a time, and the prayer of outraged and enslaved communities meet only disappointment, but, sooner or later, judgment must strike the guilty.


Nor is it as an abstract proposition this great truth is asserted, but it is illustrated as a concrete fact in history, by the rise and fall of empires, states and kingdoms, on whose sepulchres the one epitaph stands written, “Dead for Want of Righteousness!”  That is the lesson of the book, a theodicy that justifies the ways of God, vindicates His long-suffering and discipline, His last destructive stroke, and the setting up of His own kingdom where the “will” of God shall “be done on earth as it is in heaven.”  National sin must be punished, the governments of earth must be destroyed, and the nations judged, in order to their salvation.  Not monarchs, nor empires, but “The Heavens do reign!  God alone is the ground of the universe, and His righteousness, truth, mercy and holiness, His will and His judgments, are the establishment of His throne.  Might does not make right, but the nature and will of God.  Right is not the enactment of the State.  The maxims of expediency and selfish interests are not law.  The will of princes, cabinets and councillors is not the measure of obligation.  The right of rule rests not on human conquests, nor is the power to rule the creation of a people.  God alone is the ground and source of all.  Such is the doctrine and the lesson of the Book of Daniel.


Among the things that excite our curiosity and arrest our attention, as we read the book, are the metallurgy and zoology of its prefigurations, representing four great empires in succession – two Oriental, the Babylonian and Medo-Persian; two Occidental, the Graeco-Macedonian and the Roman.  The representation is made first by means of specific metals, gold, silver, brass and iron, mixed with clay; next, by four wild beasts, the lion, bear, leopard and an untamed ten-horned monster, or megatherium.  The second two are again represented by two domestic animals, the ram and rough goat.


A colossal statue of human form, bright and terrible, its head gold, its feet iron and clay, stands erect as the symbol of the whole organised political power of the world in unity, including its various governments and policy, its material strength built upon the products of the mines, its laws of degeneration, disintegration and division; in short, the entire development of the world-power, through a succession of empires, the last of which survives in its fragmentary state until the Lord comes.  The whole symbol is a picture lesson and divine programme of the world-power advancing systematically and organically in definite periods of time to a goal fixed in the counsel of God, that goal the absolute destruction of all Gentile governments, politics and power, and the erection of the kingdom of God on their ruin.  The prophet would have us write the date B.C. 606 over the head of the colossal statue, and write the Second Coining of Christ, the “Stone,” at the end of its toes. During the time between the scalp and the toes, the Colossus stands un-overthrown, and on prostrate Israel’s breast the Gentiles exercise the sovereignty of the whole earth.  At the end of the times of the Gentiles, whose length is that of the statue, its fate is to be struck on the toes by the Stone from heaven, the mountain of God’s holiness, grinding the statue to powder, the wind of judgment blowing away its dust, “like the chaff of the summer threshing floor.”  Sic transit ornut Mundi.”  The God of heaven, at such a time, sets up a kingdom, the fifth in succession, un-succeeded and indestructible.


As to the inner,spirit, essence, nature and life of the world‑power, it is symbolised by that of the four predacious beasts, whose ethics are those of the jungle, viz. : the, physically “ fittest to survive,” the Rob Roy ethics of

The simple plan

That he may take who has the power,

And he may keep who can,”

the motto for one the same for all, “Arise, devour much flesh!”  This is further illustrated by the action of the two domestic ornuted animals, butting and rebutting one another.  The stronger devour the weaker, in every case for selfish interests and increase of power.  Governed by savage, sensuous, impure, sinful and brutal impulses and passions, it perpetuates its rights of rule over man by military violence, plunging horns, teeth and iron heel, into every tribe or people that opposes.  In short, the whole world-power, from first to last, is constitutionally beastly and metallic, and continues so down to the end of its existence, and this not withstanding the progress of the nations in culture and civilisation, and in spite of every influence of Christianity upon it.  It cannot be otherwise, for selfishness and jealousy are its inner principles.  Down to the end of Gentile rule, the motives and the policies that actuated Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander and Caesar – heathen motives – are the back-lying springs of action that will govern the whole world-power, and every form of it, whether “I the king” or “We the people.”  Never can the religion of Jesus Christ celebrate a universal victory under the whole heaven until the heaven-descending “Stone” grinds to powder the proud Colossus, and the Son of Man annihilates in person the last anti-Christian ruler.


Ultimately the life of all the first three beasts passes into the fourth, more terrible than all before it, even in its divided ten-horned state, grim with iron armament, while among these separate horns and kingdoms an eleventh arises, plucking up a “Dreibund” in its way, “stouter than his fellows,” acquiring the power of all the rest, anti-Christian to the core, the persecutor of the “saints” of God, and bent on universal empire.  That is the last picture of our modern culture and so-called Christian civilisation, a picture “Modern Progress” is determined not to believe, but which God is determined it shall believe, when its haughtiness is laid low, its loftiness bowed down, and its books of sorcery, like those of the Diana-worshippers at Ephesus, are given to the flame.  The fate of the persecuting Horn, the last representative of Gentile progress, science and culture, and that of his kingdom, and of the whole world-power, is destruction.  On their grave rises, in beauty and glory, the kingdom of God.


Wonderful prediction!  The prophet traverses the march of world-empires and kingdoms from his own time to the end of our present age, the Second Coming of Christ.  He foretells the conduct of the world-power, and illustrates its madness by the mania of Nebuchadnezzar and the doom of Belshazzar.  Running down the centuries, he introduces us to Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes, to Alexander and his successors, the struggles of Egypt and Syria for Palestine, the campaigns of Antiochus Epiphanes.  He foretells events in his history of Berenice, and of Cleopatra, the mother of all the Cleopatras and sister of the Greek Antichrist.  He brings us to the rise of the Roman empire on the ruins of the republic in Caesar’s time, when the “dregs of Romulus” were all that remained, its subsequent bi-partition, its fragmentary tenfold state still later, and apart from which the mediaeval and modern history of Europe is without explanation.  He exhibits the last Antichrist, and his allied powers, as the summit of world-development in Daniel 7.


By a law of prophetic retrogression, he returns, in Daniel 9., from the final goal to predict the birth of Christ, His death, the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple by Titus, the desolation of the land and fate of the Jews during the sequent times of the Gentiles.  Advancing again to the end, he describes in brief


the Antichrist’s covenant week.  Two Advents of Christ he predicts, the one in humiliation, the other in glory.  He forecasts the conflict of the Jews with the world-power along the whole line of their sad dispersion, the final triumph of the former and the total ruin of the latter at the Second Coming of Christ, and the victory of the kingdom of Christ over all the earth, when One mightier than Cyrus shall bid His ancient people return to their lands, and One greater than all the Joshuas, Zerubbabels, Ezras and Nehemiahs of the Old Testament shall lead them back.


As to the mission of Daniel, it was, in many respects, like that of Joseph and Moses at the court of Egypt, and again like that of Paul to the Gentiles.  He was a “chosen vesselordained of God to bear “His name before Gentiles and kings, and the children of Israel” – not only to take part in the great events of the Babylonian and Persian empires, but to represent in person, to the kings who ruled them, God’s ancient people and the true religion; to fortify the captives by miracles and prophecies, confound the heathen wisdom and idolatry, and maintain the truth concerning the coming Messiah and His [millennial] kingdom.  To disobey the orders of the court with absolute impunity, and yet maintain his position in spite of the king and the satraps, to defy the sword, the flame and the lion’s den, and compel decrees in favour of “God, Most High,” this was the privilege of the prophet and his three companions.


The wise men of the world-power, the Magi of the East, believed that they alone had wisdom and had derived it from their gods, whose images and temples towered high over all heathendom.  The powers of the world believed that they acted independently of Jehovah; the God of Israel, for them, was no more than Moloch or Astarte, the tribal deity of nomads, less civilised than themselves – powers who imagined that they governed the world according to their will, and that the future was in the hands of them and their gods.  It was Daniel’s mission to dissolve this delusion, and prove to them that they wore but instruments in the hand of “God, Most High,” who ruled the whole course of history according to His own will, that the whole future lay before Him like a map prepared by His own hand, and that He who knows the future must be the Ordainer and Disposer of all events, a Power personal, intelligent, all-wise, holy, and the Almighty Whom neither the kings nor the nations could resist without punishment.


It was in the mission of Daniel to humiliate, shame, and abase the pride of all world-wisdom and world-power, and exalt the God of Israel.  By such means could he prepare the vast peoples of the Old World for the coming of the Messiah and His kingdom, and break into pieces the confidence they reposed in the idols of their worship.  By such means he introduced into the ancient literature those Messianic expectations which foretold the overthrow of all Gentile religion, politics and power; the conversion of the nations, the passing of the sovereignty of the earth to the people of God, and the fact that a descendant of the royal line of David would one day atone for the world’s transgression, and, still further, preside over the restoration of Israel out of all lands where they had been scattered.  Thus did he humble the pride of Babylonian and Persian kings and reduce to shame the wisdom of the wise.


The wonder is that this book was commenced by a young man eighteen years of age, a captive at the court of Babylon, and hostage for the good behaviour of the vassal king of Judah; a youth of royal blood, and a holy celibate for the kingdom’s sake.  Before he reached his majority he reproduced and interpreted the monarch’s dream, and because of his piety, learning, genius and fear of God, grew to become the prime-minister and master of the magi in the realms of Babylon and Persia.  By the banks of the Euphrates, Ulai and Tigris, he talked with angels and received visions from God.  A hundred years he lived contemporary with the kings of Assyria, Babylon, Media, Persia, Greece and Rome, and the last four kings of Judah.  He personally knew Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Joshua the High Priest, and Zerubbabel, prince of the house of David.  In Babylon and Shushan he met the royal magnates of the heathen world.  He was contemporary with the Greek sages Anaximander, Xenophanes, Parmenides and Pythagoras.  He studied “Moses and the Prophets,” and, like Joseph and Moses, could decipher Egyptian obelisks and read Assyrian and Babylonian texts with greater case than can any of our modern archaeologists.  He loved Jerusalem, the temple and the Holy Land.  The woes of his nation touched his heart, and the desolation of Zion melted his eyes to tears.


Although, by Daniel’s influence, the edict of Cyrus was produced for the release of the captives, yet as an exile he chose to remain at the court in Babylon in order the more to promote their interests.  He pursued his mission, trusting in a faithful God.  With what eyes his associates looked upon him we are at no loss to know. In his person he was fair of countenance, well favoured, the admiration of Ashpenaz, Melzar and Arioch, the object of their tender regard.  In his demeanour he was courteous, dignified, deferential, reverent and respectful.  In his character abstemious, serious, devout, courageous; unblemished in his private life and incorruptible in public office, a pattern of righteousness, holiness, wisdom, prayer and faithful of the fear of God – a favourite with all.  In his attainments he was skilled in all learning “ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers” that served in the king’s realm, the envy of the satraps who sought to destroy him.


What angels thought of Daniel we know.  Gabriel could address him as a man full of holy desires, “a man greatly beloved.”  What the prophets of his time thought of him we know.  Ezekiel could speak of him as worthy to stand beside Noah and Job because of his righteousness.  The queen-mother of Belshazzar could call him “a man of excellent spirit, and knowledge and understanding, “full of the spirit [or ‘Spirit] of the holy Gods.”  The prince of Tyre knew of him as “the wisest of men” long before the Delphic oracle, so-called Socrates.  The Jewish historian of later days held him in the highest estimation.  It is Josephus who says, “he was one of the greatest of prophets, honoured during his life as well by kings as by the people, and after his death the inheritor of an everlasting remembrance.”  The Synagogue could say, “If the wise men of all nations were placed in one scale and Daniel in the other, Daniel’s scale would descend and the scale of the others go up.”


Illustrious man, superior to all the kings of the earth, inferior to no prophet that ever arose before or after him!  The lions in their den stood silent at his presence and bowed their salutations to him!  At last, when a centenarian, he entered the tomb, dismissed to his rest by an angel from heaven (and all that remained of the mortal part of a man so great “sleeps” to-day “in the dust of the earth” at Shushan, one of the capitals of ancient Persia), he received a promise that one day his body should rise again, transfigured into glory bright as the firmament’s glance and gleaming as the stars for ever and ever.  In presence of such a history, mission and life, it seems presumption to speak or even think of our own.


In view of what is yet to follow, and in place of a refutation of modern false criticism, not possible here to be made, I assume at the outset (1) the genuineness and authenticity of the Book of Daniel; (2) its Messianic character; (3) its eschatological scope; (4) that its five great prophecies are one prophecy, and that the miraculous narratives were intended to be pledges of their fulfilment; (5) that the Medo-Persian empire – viz., that of Cyrus – is the second, and the Roman empire is the fourth of the five prophetic empires in the Colossus, this fourth one now divided into the separate and independent kingdoms of the modern European state’s system, and destined to pass away; (6) that by the term “kingdom” is meant both a reign and a realm, and on this present earth; (7) that the [literal] fulfilment of so much already of what Daniel foretold is a guarantee that the rest will be [literally] accomplished.  And our thesis is this, that the fifth kingdom to rise on the ruins of all the rest is the [millennial] kingdom of Christ in immediate and universal victor, and which (1) never yet has so risen, (2) never can, and (3) never will so arise, till the Second Coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven, to put down all Gentile politics and power, and introduce His universal reign of righteousness and peace.



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CHAPTER TWO [Pages 12-20]




(Daniel, Chapter 2.  Israel’s Place in History – Babylon’s Place – The Fundamental Prophecy – Law of Prophecy – The Collossus – Impact of the Stone – Rationalism – “The Days of those Kings” – The Rolling Stone – False Interpretation – The True – Honour to Daniel and Glory to God.)




It is undoubted that in the remarkable human form of the Colossus, seen by Nebuchadnezzar, and interpreted by Daniel, the history of mankind, especially of the world-power in its imperial forms, and the kingdoms derived from it, has been unveiled, from Daniel’s time to the Second Coming of Christ and the establishment of the Millennial reign.  The best and most learned investigators of the Scriptures to-day are unanimous herein, viz., that the first empire, the head of gold, is the Babylonian, the silver is the Medo-Persian the brass is the Graeco-Macedonian, the iron is the Roman, and the clay feet and toes the modern European States-system, including Syria, Egypt, and Greece.  We have only to wait till Jesus Christ, the Corner-stone of His Church, and now the Top-stone in heaven, shall come and destroy the dynasties of this world, and bring His own kingdom to victory everywhere.”


                                                                                                                 - Muhe.






Salvation is from the Jews,” not from Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks or Romans.  The great design of the creation of the Hebrew race from Abraham’s loins was Israel, the bearer of the true religion, and standing in contrast with the entire heathen world, and, by virtue of the covenant with David, the banner kingdom also, a holy, royal, priestly, prophetic and Messianic people, charged with the mission of bringing salvation to all mankind.  Their polar antagonism, therefore, to all other peoples sunk in idolatry was constitutional by God’s appointment.


For this reason Israel’s history becomes the pivot of all other history and Israel’s destiny decides the destiny of the world.  In Egypt the Hebrews grew to be a distinctive people; Sinai was the birthplace of their nationality and of their covenant with God, a covenant in which He pledged to them universal dominion upon conditions of their loyalty, faith, love and obedience to His Commandments.  As a code He gave them the Ten Commandments with judicial and ritual institutions.  Under David and Solomon they reached the height of their national glory.  After the disruption of the kingdom of Solomon, they remained free from foreign invasion till the eighth century before Christ, save the single instance of the invasion of Judah by Shishak, king of Egypt, B.C. 949.  Later on came the Assyrians, striking them successively till the Ten Tribes were carried away captive and Samaria was overthrown, B.C. 722.  Next followed the Babylonian captivity, Judah borne into exile, B.C. 606-587, her temple burned and the city of Jerusalem destroyed.  Nothing could arrest the downward step of apostasy, even though the prince was a pious politician, as in the case of Hezekiah or Josiah, and the prophet courageous as Isaiah or Jeremiah.  The might of sin was stronger than the law, inborn depravity more potent than the prophet’s appeal.  Sacrifices were vain offerings to God - a “smoke in His nostrils,” unendurable.  Hence their realm and royalty passed into Gentile hands.


The Babylonish captivity saw the visible kingdom of God, the only organised kingdom of God on earth, blotted out from the map, the independent political existence of the Jewish nation forfeited for ever until the “Times of the Gentiles” shall close and Israel’s kingdom once more be restored in glory greater than at first, as part of Messiah’s kingdom, established in victory under the whole heaven.  This is the goal of all prophecy, concerning the Jewish people, God’s “choice for ever,” and the whole burden of Daniel’s book.


When Daniel wrote, the historical situation was deeply significant.  In spite of the light of nature, the whole world was wrapped in spiritual gloom.  The period preceding Judah’s exile, in B.C. 606, had been one of sanguinary conquest, and Babylon sat on the waters of the Euphrates as mistress of the nations.  Six different languages were spoken in the Euphrates Valley - the centre of the world’s literature, commerce, trade, art, science, religion, and military pride and glory.  All nations and tribes wore ruled from here.  Palestine was in her hands, the princes of Judah beneath her feet, and, to the mind of the Babylonian king, the capture of the holy city and possession of the temple vessels was a victory over Israel’s defeated tribal God, Jehovah.  With the conquest of Judah.  Nebuchadnezzar’s empire was now consolidated, and he deemed himself “King of Kings” and “Lord of Lords” over the whole earth.  True, indeed, a movement in Media and Persia seemed to forebode disaster, and Greece and Rome were lifting their backs high on the western horizon.  And what might the future bring?  Is Jehovah defeated for ever?  It troubled the monarch’s thoughts.  If Israel and the nations have succumbed to Babylon’s might, may not Babylon herself succumb to the nations?  And will Israel be captive for ever and Gentile sovereignty sway a sceptre that is eternal?  With such thoughts the sleep of the monarch was troubled in “the second year” of his reign.


At such a time Daniel enters into history, B.C. 606, a captive at Babylon, the centre of all world-movements. God causes the Babylonian king, as He did Pharaoh, Alexander and Pilate’s wife, to “dream a dream,” in this instance the dream of the great monarchy Image in Daniel 2., and also to forget the dream.  This dream and its interpretation are the fundamental prophecy of all the prophecies in the Book of Daniel.  All else is supplementary to it.  Daniel’s chapter 7. repeats and enlarges this, under new symbols, in order to bring out something new in the development and character of each of the four empires.  Chapter 8. repeats again the second and third empires, in yet other symbols, again to develop something new.  Chapter 9. returns to the fall of Babylon under Cyrus, and runs on with a chronological scheme to the same “End” as in 2. and 7., and typically shadowed in 8.  Chapters 10.- 12. revert once more to the second empire, and run on to the same “End” as before.


The same law of advance to the goal or end, of return and advance again to the same end, that we find in the different series of sevens in John’s Apocalypse, we also find here.  The future is too complex to be represented in one series of visions, the end too great to be displayed in one revelation.  The something new requires a return to begin again, a cyclical movement, to make a new race, to the end, till all that God intends to reveal is given.  It is the mode of evolution in all prophecy concerning the End.  So it is here.  The first series is found in chapter 2.  The “End” is the end of the, “Times of the Gentiles.”  The goal is the destruction of all Gentile sovereignty, all Gentile politics and power, the restoration of the kingdom of Israel and the triumph of the kingdom of God, the [millennial] kingdom of Christ, over all the earth.


Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the metallic human image is in Daniel 2: 31-35, the interpretation in 2: 36-45.


31.  Thou, 0 king, sawest, and behold a great image.  This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.


32.  This image’s head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,


33.  His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.


34.  Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.


35.  Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.


36.  This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king.


37.  Thou. 0 king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength and glory.


38.  And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all.  Thou art this head of gold.


39.  And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.


40.  And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron; forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.”


The point of chief interest is the Impact of the Stone on the Toes of the statue or Image, i.e., the destruction  the Gentile world-power to which Israel is now subject in every nation under heaven, and has been since the crown passed from the head of Zedekiah and Gentile sceptres have ruled God’s ancient people.  The prophet in reproducing and interpreting the forgotten dream of the king, coming to the explanation of the “Toes” of the statue, says (Daniel 2: 42-45):-


42.  And as the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of clay, the kingdom (the fourth) shall be partly strong and partly broken.  43. And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with clay, they (the toes, i.e., the kings of the ten kingdoms) shall mingle themselves with the seed of men, but they shall not cleave one to another (royal and political alliances will be broken) even as iron is not mixed with clay.  44. And, in the days of these kings, shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.  45. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and brake in pieces the iron, brass, clay, silver and gold, the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter, and the dream is certain, and the interpretation is sure.”


Among the secrets of the future, the prophet, therefore, reveals (1) the total destruction of the statue, i.e., of the politically organised Gentile Powers, and the substitution of the kingdom of God in the stead of all earthly kingdoms, for ever; and (2) that the time of this world-crisis is “hereafter,” even “in the days of these kings,” the “Ten Toes,” that is to say, in the last ten days of the “Ten Kings,” who are the heads of the separate and contemporaneous “Ten Kingdoms” into which the fourth, or Roman, empire will be divided.  By the iron he means the hard and strong imperial element, and by the clay the weaker, more plastic, and popular, element in human governments, seeking vainly to combine and cohere in political unity; absolutism repelling popular freedom, and constitutionalism, and reversely the latter repelling absolutism; mixed monarchies, where the popular will wars against the imperialism of crowns and defies the will of the crown; a state of political insecurity and instability.  By “the mingling of the kings with the seed of men,” royal alliances and intermarriage of royal houses to strengthen dynastic interests is meant.  By the “Stone” cut out from the mountain without hands, and falling upon the toes of the statue, is meant the descent of Jesus Christ from heaven in judgment to smite the kings of the earth and dash the nations in pieces.  By the fall of the statue, the destruction of the whole world-power is signified, and by the Stone becoming a “Mountain” filling the whole earth, is meant the world-embracing, universal, indestructible, and everlasting kingdom of Christ, set up in victory, on this present earth, on the ruins of all existing governments, in the last days of the last kingdoms into which the old Roman territory will be divided.


The four parts of the Image, its golden head, silver breast, brazen loins, and iron legs represent respectively the successive Chaldean, Medo-Persian, Grecian, and Roman empires.  The “Ten Toes” will be co-existing kingdoms formed out of the fourth empire - the Roman.  In prophecy the terms “kings” and “kingdoms” are convertible.  The kingdoms are represented in the persons of their kings, and the kings represent their kingdoms.  The Four Beasts are called both “kings” and “kingdoms.” (Dan. 7: 17.)  The Ten Toes are also called both “kings” and “kingdoms” in the same verse (2: 44).  Kings” and “kingdoms,” are identical in 2: 38, 39.


The question as to the time point of the impact of the Stone upon the Image is vital.  The prophet nowhere teaches that this impact occurs at the junction of the knees with the thighs of the statue, where the Roman empire first comes into view, before the First Advent of Christ and in succession to the Grecian empire.  Moreover, the First Advent is not symbolised anywhere in the statue.  The Stone’s impact does not occur at the First Advent.  The words “the God of Heaven shall set up a kingdom” are indeed the Old Testament basis for the New Testament designation, “the kingdom of Heaven,” which John the Baptist and Christ preached as “at hand” and “come” in their day.  This affords, however, no proof that the impact of the Stone occurred then.  It is true that the “kingdom of Heaven” was set up on its spiritual side, at the First Advent, in the birth, life, death, resurrection, and, ascension of Christ, and in the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and preaching of the Gospel, and is the same kingdom that will yet be set up in its outward visible glory as a world-wide sovereignty “under the whole heaven,” when Gentile politics and power become as “the chaff of the summer threshing floor.”  But it is not true that it is to the First Advent the prophet’s eyes are directed in the vision of the Stone’s impact.


It is not at the beginning of the fourth empire under Augustus Caesar that the impact of the Stone occurs, but at its end, and in the last days of the Ten Toes or separate kingdoms into which it shall be then divided.  Such division did not exist in the days of Augustus, nor of Tiberius, nor of Diocletian, nor of Constantine, nor even in the days of Theodosius, when the final division east and west was made.  The tenfold division of the empire into separate and independent kingdoms, follows the work of the Goths, Vandals, Hung, and Heruli, in the sixth and seventh centuries, just prior to the emergence of Mohammed, and the mediaeval and modern kingdoms as now existing are not the last arrangement of the Toes.  The Stone could neither strike the Toes before they were formed, nor, having struck them and turned them to “chaff,” allow them to survive, like England, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and the rest are surviving now, for when the Stone shall strike them, “no place is found for them.”  The work of the Stone is not smooth, gentle, evangelical and peaceful rubbing, but perpendicular fracture, pulverisation, judicial grinding, atomisation, an attending wind of judgment blowing the chaff, dust, and powder of all Gentile politics so far out of sight as never to be seen any more.  Clearly, therefore, by the words “in the days of those kings,” is not meant “in the days of those four empires,” but in the last days of the Fourth or Roman empire, when it shall be completely divided into ten separate, contemporaneous yet confederated kingdoms.


Indisputable is the fact that the “Ten Toes” and the “Ten Horns” of Daniel 7. represent the same kings and kingdoms, and that the destruction of the one is the destruction of the other.  Conscience, honesty, truth, cannot otherwise hold.  Therefore, again, nothing is clearer than that the days here mentioned as the days of the Toes (2: 44) are the “1,260 days,” or “time, two times and half a time,” of the Horns in 7:  25 - i.e., the last 1,260 days of the 70th Week of Daniel, as seen in his chapters 9:  27 and 12:  7.


Daniel’s 70th Week is the Antichrist week at the end of our age.  The “Ten Toes” being “Ten Kingdoms” and “Ten Kings,” and their last days being the days preceding the impact of the Stone, who is Christ in judgment, it follows that “the days of those kings” are the last “1,260 days” of the 70th Week of Daniel.  They are still future to us.


But conclusive beyond all is the New Testament light upon the whole question.  On all hands it is admitted that the “Ten Horns” of the Beast in Rev. 13. are identical with the Ten Horns of the Beast in Daniel 7., and that there, as here, “1,260 days”, or “42 months” are the days assigned as the last days of the fourth empire.  And as the Ten Horns are the Ten Toes, and both are the Ten Kings, it follows that “these kings” in Daniel 2: 44 are precisely the “Ten Kings in Revelations 17: 12, whose alliance with the Antichrist or Little Horn of Daniel 7. endures 1,260 days, and whose destruction with him is the work of the Son of Man, the Stone, Jesus Christ, at His Second Coming.  The impact of the Stone is, therefore, at the Second Advent of Christ, and could not have been at His First Advent, and the kingdom of Christ to be set up as a result of that impact is not yet established in the form predicted, nor can be till the Lord's Second Advent.


All that is said of the First Coming of Christ in the book of Daniel is found in Daniel 9: 24-7, where it is predicted to occur at the close of the 69th of the seventy weeks there foretold, and His crucifixion precedes the destruction of Jerusalem.  Neither in Daniel 2., 7., 8., 10.- 12., is the First Advent revealed.


A few prophetic writers have fancifully introduced an idea of the Stone Rolling, and they have invented a distinction of “two stadia” in the kingdom set up.  These they call the “kingdom of the Rolling Stone,” and the “kingdom of the non-Rolling Mountain,” the one dating from the First Advent, the other from the Second.  By this means two separate functions are assigned to the “Stone,” (1) that of “rolling” for 1,900 years or more; (2) that of impact at the end of these years.  All this springs from the fact that the time of the First Advent is assumed as the “time of the days of these kings,” which it is not.  Even on the supposition that the Stone rolled on a plain, what impression could it have on the statue?  None!  The moment it strikes the Toes the statue falls.  The Stone does not “roll” either before or after its contact with the Toes.  The Toes are the end of the fourth empire.  Neither Nebuchadnezzar nor Daniel saw any “rolling,” or horizontal or circular motion of any kind, but simply a perpendicular impact upon the Toes, a tottering statue, a fall tremendous, a cloud as of chaff, a driving wind, and the kingdom of Christ at once filling the whole earth.  When thy judgments are abroad the inhabitants of the earth will learn righteousness.”  Moreover, how the same “Stone” could “roll” towards the four points of the compass at once and fill the whole earth is inconceivable.  It is only as a standing and self-expanding Stone this universality could be achieved.  The impact itself will be universal.  The effect of that impact will be the same.  Everywhere the kingdom will come.  The judgment of the nations is in order to the salvation of the nations.  Nor will it require ages to set up the [millennial] kingdom of Christ on earth at His coming, so that it “becomes a mountain.”  The idea of long continuity through ages is not found in the Hebrew verb, translated “became,” i.e., “became a mountain.” (Dan. 2: 35.)  It is the same verb found in the words “and man became a living soul.” (Gen. 2: 7.)  It denotes here a fact accomplished at the time of the action.


And such was the view of the holy prophet who spake by inspiration of God.  He humbled the monarch’s pride by teaching that Israel’s God was not defeated because Israel had been delivered, for sin, into captivity to Gentile hands, but still lived as “God, Most High,” a Revealer of secrets, Almighty to save, righteous in punishing sin, yet watching in love His people; that, one day, Gentile power should perish for ever, and the kingdom of God be set up in victory everlasting from pole to pole.  The rise and fall of successive empires, of which the fourth is the Roman, was shown to the monarch, the far “end,” the doom of man’s governments, the establishment of the government of God, and on this present earth, when God’s will shall be “done on earth as it is in heaven.”  Then God’s people, [accounted worthy to be] heirs of the kingdom, will be free from the despot’s chain, and humanity cease to groan beneath a burden no power but God’s could remove.


So preached the great pre-millennial prophet of the exile in the ears of the king of the greatest kingdom on earth, a doctrine whose teaching to-day the Church dishonours.  To the monarch it came as a message from God by the mouth of a seer who declared that “the vision is certain and the interpretation is sure.”  It impressed the soul of the king.  It brought glory to God; to Daniel great honour, abundant gifts, a seat in the gate of the king, as primate of all the realm and master of all the wise, and to Daniel’s friends, dignities next to his own.


And such was the view of this prophecy taken by great Church teachers in early times, of whom two remain unsurpassed, the one, Irenaeus the Great, the other, his greater disciple, Hippolytus, the first saying, “At the end of our age the Stone will strike the statue,” and “Jesus Christ is the Stone”; the second saying, “At the end of our age the Stone grinds to powder the kingdoms of this world.”  Nor will the prophecy admit of any other interpretation.  May the vision soon be fulfilled!



*       *       *       *       *       *       *


CHAPTER THREE [Pages 21-38]




(Daniel, Chapter 7. – Critical Question – Vision of the Four Beasts – The Fourth Beast and its Horns – The Little Horn – Vision of the Judgment of the Horn and the Nations – Ancient of Days – Son of Man – Overthrow of Kingdoms and Sultanates – Chiliasm – The Kingdom given to the Saints – Time of the Judgment – Place of the Judgment – The Ten Horns – The Criminality of the Modern World-Powers – Their Doom.)




Imperial powers must sink when virtue fails,

And selfishness with pride alone prevails;

He argues ill who from its fortune draws

The goodness or the badness of a cause;

Success on merit does not always wait;

Remember, too, old Babylon the Great!

Through prosperous crime the ancient empires fell;

Ambition, bloodshed, guilt, their funeral knell;

Unerring law, with its resistless force,

Mapped out for each its swift and downward course;

A ruling power defined their years, their pace,

The road that led to judgment and disgrace;

Unless events were by the Lord controlled,

How could their certain order be foretold?

How could the prophet sing of future doom,

Or in the present read the age to come?”


                                                                                                                                      - Crell.






1. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters.  2. Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.  3. And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. 4. The first was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man’s heart was given to it.  5. And I beheld another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.  6. After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.  7. After this I saw in the night visions, and beheld a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.  8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.  9. I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.  10. A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; the judgment was set, and the books were opened.  11. I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.  12. As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.  13. I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought him near before him.  14. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.  15. I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me.  16. I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this.  So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things.  17. These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.  18. But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.  19. Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet.  20. And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows.  21. I beheld and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; 22. until the Ancient of Days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.  23. Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.  24. On the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.  25. And he shall speak great words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.  26. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end.  27. And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.  28. Hitherto is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart.”


The date of Daniel’s vision in chapter 7. and its writing are stated to be in “the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon” (7: 1).  Some sceptics have denied the existence of a king of that name.


The testimony of the Babylonian cylinders of Cyrus and Nabonnaid, and the analystic tablets of the time, have successfully repelled this assault on Daniel’s credibility.  The name Belshazzar has been discovered under the form of “Bel-sar-usur,” the “Ha-bal-sarru” of the Chaldean army, the “Vice-king” and “eldest son” of Nabonnaid, the last king of Babylon, who reigned seventeen years, B.C. 555-538, this “son” being co-regent during the last three years of his reign, i.e., three years next preceding Babylon’s fall, B,C. 538.  The monuments still further establish the facts that to “Bel-sar-usur” was entrusted the defence of Babylon in B.C. 538, while his father Nabonnaid took the field in Accad and was defeated by Cyrus the same year.  The Greek historians, Herodotus and Xenophon, both support the statement of Daniel that Belshazzar met his death at that time in the midst of revelry, an “impious young king.”  Assuming, therefore, the identity of Belshazzar with Bel-sar-usur, the reliability of Daniel is confirmed and the true date of the vision in Daniel 7. is B. C. 541, the third year before Babylon’s fall.


All the statements of Daniel are in perfect harmony with this.  It must be noted that Daniel nowhere affirms that Belshazzar was the “immediate” son or successor of Nebuchadnezzar, nor that he was “the last king of Babylon,” nor does he deny that he was the son of Nabonnaid, nor that Nabonnaid was the “last king.”  He calls him “son” of Nebuchadnezzar, as does also the imposing Queen-Mother, in the banquet (5: 2-22). Nebuchadnezzar is called his “father.”  In Semitic languages no word exists for “grandfather,” and none for “grandson.”  The term “Ab,” “father,” denotes semitically all ancestors, as when Abraham is called the “father” of the Jews, and the term “Ben,” “son,” all descendants, as when Jesus Christ is called the “Son” of David, and “Son” of Abraham.  Belshazzar was indeed the son of Nabonnaid, and at the same time semitically and in popular usage, the “son” of Nebuchadnezzar, i.e., his grandson.  The Queen-Mother was his grandmother, the mother of the wife of Nabonnaid, the widow of Nebuchadnezzar, whose daughter Nabonnaid married, thus gaining his title to the throne.  The title “king” was given to Belshazzar when co-regent with his father, as was the case with Nebuchadnezzar himself. (Dan. 1: 1).


The Inscription on the great Cyrus-Nabonnaid Cylinder closes its account of the capture of Babylon thus, - beginning with Col. 3. line 6.  In the month Tammuz Cyprus came and fought a battle. * * * The men of Accad broke out into insurrection.  On the 14th day the soldiers of Cyrus took Sipara without a stroke of the sword.  Nabonnaid fled.  On the 16th day Ugbaru (Gobryas) and the army of Cyrus came to Babylon, without fighting. In the month Marchesvan (November, B.C. 538), on the third day, Cyrus came to Babylon, proclaimed peace, and made Ugbaru (Gobryas) governor.  On the 11th day of Marches van Ugbaru had, * * * And the King died.  From 27th Adar to 3rd Nisan there was mourning in Accad.”  The “King” was no other than Bel-sar-usur, since Cyrus spared Nabonnaid and made him governor of Carmania.  The Inscription is indisputable.  It calls Bel-sar-usur the “first-born son,” and leaves him in command of Babylon, while his father is in the field, in Accad.  It calls him “King,” his father still living.  It makes him co-regent, and the actual ruler in the city of Babylon, after his father’s crown was lost.  It narrates the capture of the city on the 3rd and his death on the 11th.  We are left to infer that the King’s death was the result of wounds inflicted during the night of the capture.  Daniel says “he was slain,” i.e., struck fatally with the sword.  The monument says he “died” - was killed.


And yet this part of the Inscription, giving the title and death of Belshazzar, is deliberately suppressed by Kamphausen, the editor of “Daniel” in the polychrome Bible of the Critics - when quoting the lines immediately preceding the notice of the death!  (Das Buch Daniel, p. 25-28.)  The Inscription was published by Rawlinson 1854, Pinches 1882, Schrader 1880, 1890, Rommel 1888, Dusterwald 1893, and by many more.  All Assyriologists are aware of it.


And now for the prophecy itself.  In Daniel 2. the monarch of Babylon had dreamed and seen a four-metalled colossus.  Here, in chapter 7, Daniel “dreams a dream,” and has “visions of his head upon his bed” – “visions of the night” (7: 1).  The spirit, even when the brain sleeps, has a faculty in which sensible objects can be represented as if seen by the bodily eyes.  Seven tableaux pass before him, the first five relating to four beasts successively rising from a storm-tossed sea (7: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7), the last two to the judgment of the Fourth Beast and its Horns (7: 8, 13).  Each is introduced by the wonder-word “Behold!” – “I saw and behold!”  In ancient times animal forms were used by Oriental monarchs to symbolise their empires, as Assyrian and Babylonian excavations show, and history as well, and in the history before us we learn how God employed such forms to represent the different successive phases of the “World-Power,” in all time, and so unveil to the prophet its future course and its end.  Daniel 7. furnishes the decisive confirmation of the truth of our thesis, viz., that the kingdom of Christ can never come to victory over all the earth until the Second Coming of the Son of Man.


The vision of the Fourth Beast marks an unparalleled advance in the mode of prophetic representation, by introducing a solemn assize, in which “One like the Son of Man” comes with clouds, to destroy the last Antichrist and all Gentile politics and power, and to erect a fifth and universal monarchy “underneath all heavens.”  It is the high-point of Old Testament eschatology.  There is nothing like it anywhere else in all the prophets.  It is paralleled only by the scenes in the Revelation given of God to Christ, and by Him through His angel to John.  As a picture of the Advent it is without a peer in the Old Testament, transcending all other representations by its solemnity, sublimity, and majesty, its dramatic power and its terror.  It enters more largely than any other scene into New Testament prophecy, and forms the basis of all the New Testament representations of the End.  Twenty-one out of twenty-eight massive verses in Daniel 7. are here given to the fourth, or Roman Empire, seventeen of these to Christ and the Antichrist.  It means that the subject is of infinite moment.


The prophet beholds four empires emerging, one after another, out of the billowy sea of the heathen world.  The surging waters are an emblem of the heathen nations in tumult.  The Four Beasts correspond to the four metallic parts of the image in Daniel 2., and in the order of their appearing.  The strength and swiftness of the Babylonian empire and its ferocity are represented by a Lion with eagle’s wings.  The loss of its plumage denotes the cessation of its conquests, and its change of posture from that of a beast to that of a man, and the gift of “a man’s heart,” the moral effect produced by the recovery of the Chaldean king from his seven years’ mania. (Dan. 6: 16, 25-37, 34-37.)  The Bear’s elevation, lifting itself with its paw “on one side,” marks the superiority of the Persian to the Median element in the Medo-Persian empire of Cyrus.  The “three ribs” in its mouth are his conquests of Susiana, Lydia, and Asia Minor, while the command, “Arise and devour much flesh,” denotes the carnivorous voracity of the Bear and its future conquests of Babylon and Egypt.  In the Leopard or Panther the “four wings” represent the celerity of Alexander’s conquests in every direction, and the “four heads” the partition of his empire into the four kingdoms of Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, and Thrace with Asia Minor.


The “Fourth Beast” is that which attracts the prophet’s special notice; a Beast, dreadful, exceeding strong, terrible, with iron teeth, devouring, breaking in pieces, stamping, diverse from all the rest.  Ten Horns,” the symbols of kings and their kingdoms together, surmount the head of the Beast, among which an “eleventh” rises, having “eyes like a man,” denoting its intellectuality and human personality, and a magniloquent mouth blaspheming.  Uprooting a triple alliance that stands in its way, it acquires the power of all the horns, because “stouter than its fellows.”  Three years and a half it persecutes the “saints of the Most High,” changing times and laws, and subjecting them to great tribulations.


At the end of this period a Judgment scene breaks in, and terminates the mad career of the Horn.  Thrones are placed (not cast down) in the heavens immediately above the earth, for judges to sit upon, in the midst of which the “Ancient of Days” (Hattiq Yomin), the “bedayed” one, sits, venerable to behold, arrayed in white vesture, “white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool.”  Pavilioned in flame, streams of fire proceeding before Him, ten thousand times ten thousand angels attending, He presides over the heavenly Sanhddrin come for judgment.  The Judgment sits and the books are opened.”  The effect of the judgment is stated.  The Beast, the personal Eleventh Horn, who, by acquiring all power, had become the whole Beast in his own person, is taken and slain, and his body given to Tophet, the burning flame.  The rest of the Beasts survive a brief season, after their dominion is taken away, and are destroyed.  But this is not all.  Though God the Father, the “Ancient of Days,” presides, yet “Another,” to whom “dominion and glory” are given, i.e., the right to judge, rule, and receive the honour, as well as the kingdom, suddenly appears in the midst of the scene. (Dan. 7: 13, 14.)


13. I saw in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought him near before Him.  14. And there was given to him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all peoples, and nations, and languages, should serve Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.”


It is the “Epiphaneia” of Christ we have here, the Second Advent of the Son of Man, to whom the Father has committed all judgment, that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. (John 5: 22, 23.) It is Israel’s Messiah, the Christian’s Lord, who executes the judgment willed by the Father upon the World-Power and its last representative, the Antichristian Horn.  A Double-scene is here, a scene in two acts (verses 9-12 and verses 13, 14), in order to bring out prominently the fact that it is by the Father’s will the Son is made the Judge of all mankind, and by His incarnation, death, resurrection and ascension has acquired the right to judge and reign eternally.


The prophet was impressed and perplexed by the solemn vision, and “would know the truth of all this” that he had seen, “the truth of the Fourth Beast” especially, “and of the Ten Horns,” and yet more especially of the other that came up, before whom three fell, “the Horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking very great things, and whose look was more stout than his fellows.”  He is intensely curious and particular in his specifications. An angel explains.  After briefly describing the all-conquering character of the Roman empire (Dan. 7: 23), he says:-


24. And the Ten Horns out of this kingdom (the Roman) are Ten Kings that shall arise, and another shall arise after them, and he shall be diverse from the first ones, and shall subdue three kings.  And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to chancre times and laws. And they (the saints) shall be given into his hand until a time, two times, and the dividing of a time! (1,260 days).  But the Judgment shall sit, and they (the Ancient of Days, the Son of Man, the angels) shall take away his Sultanate to consume and destroy it to the end.” (Dan. 7: 21-26.)


And now comes the grand announcement of the outcome and goal of the prophecy, the companion-piece precisely of that in Daniel 2. 44 - viz., “And the kingdom, and the Sultanate, and the greatness of the kingdom underneath all heavens, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all Sultanates shall serve and obey Him.” (7:  27.)  Here, the “kingdom” is set up on earth by the “God of Heaven,” at the Second Coming of the Son of Man in the clouds, to destroy the last Antichrist, and demolish all Gentile politics and power.  Here is found the much-despised “Chiliasm” (Pre-millennialism), indestructible as the truth and the throne of God!  As face answers to face in water, so Daniel 7: 27 answers to Daniel 2: 44, an invulnerable demonstration that the kingdom of Christ cannot come to victory, nor “God’s will be done in earth as it is in heaven,” until the Second Coming of the Son of Man.  He who denies this denies the text of the prophet, the Word of God, spoken and interpreted by an angel of God, a vision and interpretation written by inspired hands at the time they wore given (7: 1), and like all else in Daniel’s “book,” authenticated as the “Scripture of Truth,” and with the closing revelation commanded to be sealed as a perfect word, a light and a lesson for the “wise” in the “time of the end.” (Dan. 12: 4, 9, 10.)


Great and solemn as is this vision, it is not, however, a vision of the last judgment which occurs at the close of the millennial age, and brings the “new heaven and earth” in Revelations 20. and 21.  This vision is the Messianic judgment, placed by all the prophets at the end of our present age, when Gentile Times expire and new-born Israel’s Times begin in the kingdom of God on earth.  Territorially, the vision covers, not all the planet, but only the sphere of the empire of the Fourth Beast, viz., the old Roman territory from the Euphrates to the British Isles, and from the Rhine and Danube to the cataracts of the Nile.  To other prophets the task was assigned, as to Moses, Isaiah, Joel, Ezekiel, and Zechariah, to develop other events occurring at this time, but to Daniel alone the painting of this one solemn portrait of the “Ancient of Days” and the “Son of Man.”  Each inspired artist executed the task committed to his hand, each painting his work on separate canvas, then laying aside his pencil and brush and passing into the peace of God.  A total view of the “End” requires a combination of the events in all these separate pictures, arranged in their order and relations, on one great canvas of the future, a task reserved for John, with further developments and the final finish of all.


It is thus that the “kingdom” announced at the close of the last 1,260 days of Daniel’s 70th Week in the ringing notes of the seventh angel (Rev. 11: 15), and cheered by a voice from Heaven, because of Israel’s conversion, is seen to be one and the same “kingdom” with that in Daniel 2: 44, and 7: 27, the “kingdom” in Matthew 25: 34, and to which the holy apostle John has given the name of “the thousand years” in the 20th chapter of Revelation.  It is announced in the distinctest terms, and painted in the brightest colours, as the millennial kingdom on earth, introduced by the pre-millennial coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven. (Rev. 14: 14; Matt. 13: 36-41.)  What we have here in Daniel 7. is:‑ 1. The Time of the Judgment on the nations, 2. Its Place. 3. The Parties engaged in it, 4. The Duration of the Judament.


1.  The Time of the Judgment.  It is at the “End” of the 70th Week in Daniel 9: 26, 27, the close of the Times of the Gentiles, the end of the last 1,260 days of the Anti-christ’s persecuting reign as lord of ten monarchies in one, (the Ten-horned Beast), and the holder of Jerusalem, yet coming quickly to his own “End” with none to help him.  (Dan. 11: 45; Zech. 14: 1-5; Rev. 14: 14-20; 19: 11-2l.)  It closes the Horn’s career. (Dan. 7: 21, 22.) The final conflict terminated by this judgment includes the “Day of the Lord upon all nations,” preceded by that fatal spell when the powers that be and society at large, as in Noah’s day, shall be intent on architecture, commerce, trade and all domestic pleasure, singing the siren song of “Peace and Safety,” as did the false prophets of old, unconscious that “sudden destruction” is near. (1 Thess. 5: 3; Jer. 8: 11, 15, 16; 14: 13; 23: 17-30.)  That will be the Concert of Europe and of the world!  The political hypocrisy of the time will betray itself in this, that while affecting arbitration of international disputes, new ambitions, new international complications, and new oppressions and aggressions will be devised, THE WHOLE WORLD ARMING FOR WAR. (Joel 3: 9-11.)


The alliances of Christian governments with those that are anti-Christian, for the sake of gain, the extension of territory, wealth and power, the oppression of the weak by the strong, the spectacle of massacre allowed by Christian nations, the hollowness, the treachery to treaties and to covenants, the concert of Christian powers in a code of international authority, founded neither on the principles of justice nor of humanity, but on the will of the strongest, and violated in the interests of the strongest, will so affect, disgust and exasperate mankind, that, once more, as in the days of Robespierre and Voltaire, Christianity itself will be scouted in the circles of the learned, and by the masses, and the very foundations of civil, social and religious order be broken up.  At such a time the “Little Horn” will come, and run his career unchecked by anything “withholding” (2 Thess. 2: 6-12), till the counter-coming of the Son of Man.  That Second Coming is the glorious, visible and public Advent of Christ - His appearing in the clouds of heaven, as the vision shows, for both judgment and salvation, its one time-point, the close of the Great Tribulation.  It is the same time-point as in Matthew 24: 2, 9, 31, 40-44; 25: 1; 2 Thess. 1: 6, 7; 2: 1-8; Revelations 11: 15-17; 19: 11-21, and prior to which heaven receives and retains Him on His Father’s throne. (Acts 3: 19-21 (R.V.).  It is the high-point in the “Day of the Lord” which begins before the Advent and continues after it, the Day “in the which” the Lord comes. (Matt. 24: 42, 44, 50; Luke 12: 39, 46; 17: 30; Acts 17: 31; Rom. 2: 16; 2 Thess. 1: 10; 2 Tim. 1: 18.)  As in all prophecy, so here, Judgment and Salvation go together, “as it was in the days of Noah,” and “of Lot,” and the “coming out of Egypt.”


The New Testament fills in the details unmentioned in Daniel’s vision, viz., those of INTERNATIONAL WAR AND STRIFE.  The kingdoms will have prepared for themselves the instruments of their own destruction.  The logic of the situation will have caused already an effort to reintegrate the jarring nations into ONE VAST EMPIRE, as the best solution of the problem of government, a world-empire free from Christianity and bound alone to a religion of humanity, in which the world’s last leader will be the chief object of worship, the world’s new Messiah.  The temporary realisation of that scheme with all its wickedness, will provoke the last heaving of the nations and call into being the “Day of the Lord.” Supernatural terrors will break in on the new order of things, more void of order than all preceding times. “Heaven, earth, sea and the dry land will be shaken.” (Haggai 2: 6, 7.)


It will be a time of tribulation and anguish, of SLAUGHTER and GLOOM and of PERSECUTION of God’s saints, a time when the sickle, the flail, the fan, and the fire, will do their work, a time when the harvest is ripe, and the vintage so full that the vats overflow, “because the wickedness is great.” (Joel. 3: 13.)  The struggle for supremacy will bring the “War of the Great Day of God Almighty” (Rev. 16: 14), when the Horn prevails against the saints and seeks to build his new empire on the destruction of all Christianity in human governments, and on the extirpation of the Jews.  To that the kingdoms of this world will come, till the Lord comes to destroy their power.  Then, what Daniel saw in vision will become history, the nations gathered together against Jerusalem, the last Anti-christ playing his last desperate game against the Holy City. Then, the Son of Man shall come in His glory and all the holy angels with Him, and He shall sit on the throne of His glory, and before Him shall be gathered all nations, (Matthew 25: 31; Zephaniah 3: 8; Zechariah 12: 2; 14: 1-5; Psalm 1: 1-6.)


The reintegration and the rule, the fact that Gentile politics and power, nominally Christian, have come to anti-

Christianity for the sake of gain, and the powers that be have conspired to give their strength to the Beast, not only against Rome (Rev. 17: 13-16) but Jerusalem (Rev. 14: 20), and to shed the blood of God’s saints, will precipitate the last phenomena.  Woe worth the day!”  Nature herself will shudder, and sun, moon and stars refuse to look on the butchery, and through the darkness that shrouds the hour, the flash of the Advent will kindle the sky, and glare on the concert of crime below, and earth’s monarchs, magnates and millionaires, her statesmen and diplomatists, the commanders of her armies and fleets in all waters - all the great, rich and mighty, bond and free - will “call on the rocks and mountains to hide them from the face of Him who sits upon the throne, and from the Wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of His Wrath is come, and who shall be able to stand?” (Rev. 6: 12-17.)  The sixth apocalyptic seal contains the vision and judgment in Daniel 7.  All the prophets look to the “End” and to the Second Coming of Christ.  All look to the “seventh trumpet” and to the “seven vials,” the last of which ends the kingdom of the Horn.  (Dan. 9: 27; Rev. 19: 11-21.)


2.  The Place of the Judgment.  So far as the “thrones” are concerned (7: 9), it is aerial, in stormy and fire-lit clouds, overhanging the earth, and visible to all.  The heavens declare His righteousness, for God Himself is Judge.” (Ps. 1: 6.)  The diurnal rotation of the planet on its axis will make the visibility a universal necessity. “Every eye shall see Him.” (Rev. 1: 7.).  But, so far as the special vision in Daniel 7. has to do with the destruction of the Antichrist and his empire, and Israel’s deliverance, the judgment is localised to the Holy Land. (Dan. 11: 45; 12: 1.)  Geographically and topographically the place is defined by Moses as “the land” (Dent. 32: 43); by Asaph as “Zion” (Ps. 1: 1-6); by Isaiah as “the land of Judah,” “this mountain,” and “Jerusalem” (25: 7; 26: 1; 46: 13-16); by Zephaniah as “Jerusalem” (3: 8-17); by Joel as the “Valley of Jehoshaphat,” and the “Valley of Decision,” (3: 11-16); by Zechariah as “Jerusalem,” where all nations are gathered, and as the “Mount. of Olives which is before Jerusalem on the east,” where the Lord’s “feet shall stand in that day” (12: 2-8; 14: 1-5) ; by Ezekiel as the “Valley of the Passengers,” the “Overim,” or “Cross-over,” on the “east of the sea,” the Mediterranean - the great transit route across Palestine from Carmel to the Jordan, i.e., the “valley of Megiddo,” and “Plain of Esdraelon” (Ezekiel 39: 11; Judges 4: 7; 5: 19; Zech. 12: 11); by Daniel as the “Mountain of the Beauty of Holiness between the seas,” i.e., Moriah in Jerusalem, between the Mediterranean and Dead Seas, where the mosques of Omar and El Aska now stand amid the cypress trees (Dan. 11: 45; 12: 1); and by holy John as “Armageddon.” (Rev. 15: 15, 16.)


These designations cover Galilee, Samaria, Judea, the whole of Palestine now held by the Turk, as the centre of the final struggle between the Jews and the Antichrist seeking to hold the land as his own, and make the Holy City the capital of his new empire.  The last military station of the “Horn” is at Jerusalem, his last encampment the Holy Place where once Jehovah’s temple stood.  What scenes occur here at this time when the “Powers” fight their last fight and Gentile politics go down to the dust, may be read in Zechariah 12: 2-9 and 14: 1-5.  In Palestine the final conflict between the religion of Christ, as a power sought to be crushed, and all other false religions, and between the sceptre of Christ and all other sceptres will be waged.  And He who ascended from Olivet in a cloud will return in clouds to Olivet.  And where once “the kings of the earth stood up and were gathered together against the Lord and His Anointed” (Acts 4: 24-27), they shall be gathered again, but in a role reversed.  The Holy Land, so many times invaded by the kings of the earth, during 4,000 years, and winning for itself the title of “the battlefield of the kingdom of God,” shall once more, and for the last time, become the local centre of the closing struggle in the fortunes of the ancient people of God.


In that day Judah shall fight at Jerusalem” (Zech. 14: 14), and “the Lord shall defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and he that is feeble among them shall be as David, and the house of David as God, as the angel of the Lord before them.” (Zech. 12: 8.)  It is then “Michael” stands up for the Jews. (Dan. 12: 1, 10: 13; Rev. 12: 7.)  And the Lord shall go forth and fight against those nations as when He fought in the day of battle.  And His feet shall stand in that day on the Mount of Olives, which is on the east before Jerusalem. And the Lord, my God, shall come; all the holy ones with thee!” (Zech. 14: 1-5; Isa. 24: 21-23; Ps. 1: 1-6.)  And so it shall be that “when the enemy invades the land like a flood, the breath of the Lord shall be as a rushing stream against him, and the Redeemer (Israel’s God) shall come to Zion, to the converts from apostasy in Jacob, said the Lord.” (Isa. 59: 19; Rom. 11: 26; Isa. 66: 5; Rev. 19: 11-21, 14: 1-5 Acts 3: 19-21.)


3.  The Parties in the Judgment.  Already mentioned in general, it is necessary still to speak of them in particular.  They are (1) the Fourth Beast, (2) the Ten Horns or Kingdoms, (3) the Little Horn, (4) the Ancient of Days, (5) the Angels, (6) the Son of Man, (7) the Saints of the Most High, or the People of the Saints of the Most High.


As to the “Fourth Beast,” everything said previously concerning the fourth empire is here applicable.  It is Caesar’s Roman empire, whose first emperor was Augustus, and identical with the persecuting beast in Revelations 13: 1-18, and 17: 1-18, and involves its whole history.


As to the “TEN HORNS.”  Everything said previously concerning the “Ten Toes” is applicable here, since both are identical.  They are ten separate, yet confederated, and contemporaneous kingdoms with their kings in Europe, Asia, and Africa, formed within the limits of the old Roman territory, East and West, in the last days of their existence.  To-day Great Britain (including Egypt), France, Spain, Portugal, Austro-Hungary, Italy, Greece, Turkey, part of Germany, and part of Russia, occupy the territory of the old Roman empire, yet good reasons exist for holding that a FURTHER DISTRIBUTION INTO TEN KINGDOMS will be made, by the sword or by diplomacy, in the time of the “End.”


Among these reasons are the facts (1) that the Ten Toes are identical with the Ten Horns in Daniel 2. and 7., and both with the Ten Horns in the Revelation of John; (2), that the Toes, therefore the Horns, lie not in - the Western territory of the Roman empire alone, but in the Eastern as well; (3), that in Revelations 17. they appear discrowned, quasi-kings, whose power has gone to the Beast for a time and special purpose, i.e., Rome’s destruction; (4), the difficulty of showing yet which of all the kingdoms of Europe, Asia, and Africa the final Ten will be.


Concede to the Historical system of interpretation all it can demonstrate validly from history: that Nero was an Antichrist, the Pope another, the one a pagan, the other an ecclesiastic, and also, that, while the Papacy is Western Antichrist, Islam is the Eastern, the one ruling as “Vicar of Christ,” the other as “the Shadow of God,” still to Futurism must be allowed the unconquerable answer that the Scarlet Woman, Rome, the Horns and Little Horn, exist till Christ comes to destroy them, and the Jews wage their last conflict with the last Antichrist, in times immediately preceding the Second Advent.  Therefore, the final distribution of the Roman territories into TEN KINGDOMS IS STILL FUTURE.


Remarkable is the statement of Hippolytus, Bishop of Rome in the second century, that the Ten Kingdoms will be “discrowned” and become “democracies” at the end of our age - a conclusion he reached solely from Daniel 2: 42, 43.  So Theodoret: “In the time of the End Ten Kings shall arise, and one, who will subdue all, be the demiurge of all wickedness.”  Jerome’s statement is, “We teach, therefore, what all our ecclesiastical writers have delivered to us, that, in the end of the world (age), when the Roman power shall be destroyed, Ten Kings shall arise, who will divide the empire among them, and an eleventh shall come, who will uproot three, which having been done, the other seven will submit their necks to the victor’s yoke.  This is the common interpretation by all ours.”


It is worthy of note that one of the types of the last Antichrist (Antiochus) rose out of territory now occupied by the Sultan of Turkey, while another (Nero) rose out of territory now occupied by the king of Italy.  The dividing line, between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman empire ran ideally, north and south, through Belgrade, cutting the Mediterranean Sea in two, extending to Tunis in Africa, thence projected to the desert, with Constantinople the capital on one side, Rome on the other.  The breaking up of the Western half was completed by the Barbarian irruption upon it, from the third to the sixth century, and the formation of the kingdoms just prior to the rise of Mohammed.  The breaking up of the Eastern half, and its conquest by Mohammed II, was effected in 1453, when Constantinople was taken, and the Turk camped on the Bosphorus.


Whatever the final distribution of the Ten Kingdoms, it is certain they will represent the whole culture and civilisation of Europe, Asia, and Africa in all its degrees.  Within the limit of the old united empire; their conflicting religions, different tongues, and Governments practically discrowned by the Antichrist, their mutual rivalries and jealousies, ambitions and enmities; their international commercial system the Mammon-sceptre of the last times their apostasy from truth and righteousness, from freedom, humanity, and justice; their anti-Christianity, bloodshed, and crime.  All the questions that now agitate them, in their struggle for the mastery – Pan-Hellenism, Pan-Slavism, Anti-Semitism, the integrity of the Turkish empire, the competition of the “Christian Powers” for control of the trade of the East, their relation to the weaker and oppressed peoples, race antagonisms, their policies, and, in spite of Christianity, their selfishness and sinfulness - will continue till the Lord comes to “dash them in pieces,” and make them “as the chaff of the summer threshingfloor.”


4.  The Duration of the Judgment on the nations.  This is nowhere defined in the Scriptures, unless we take the close of the Great Tribulation, i.e., the end of the last 1,260 days of the Horn’s career as its commencing point, and the close of the 1,335 days as its concluding point (Dan. 7: 25, 26; 12: 12), that is to say, a period of seventy-five days, or two months and a half.  The final judgment on the Horn and his allies, and the final stroke on all Gentile politics and power begins with the Advent of Christ in the clouds of heaven, and must close before the “Blessed” time.  Blessed is he that waiteth and cometh to the 1,335 days.” (Dan. 12: 12.) Swift and severe, the judgment will be a “short work in righteousness,” shaking together “heaven, earth, sea, dry land and all nations” (Hagg. 2: 6, 7; Heb. 12: 26, 29), for the Lord will “finish the work and cut it short in righteousness: because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth” (Rom. 9: 28) – “sudden destruction.” (1 These. 5: 3.)  The supernatural phenomena which precede, increase, intensify and melt into the “Day of the Lord,” will reach their culmination with the Advent itself.  And, as Zechariah informs us, Joshua’s long day – “neither day nor night” - will be repeated in the final crisis. (Zech. 14: 6, 7.)  The kingdom of the Horn will be “consumed and destroyed unto the end.” (Dan. 7: 26.)


The solemn thing is that the “Ten Horns” are all kingdoms which will become politically, in their governments, apostate from Christianity, and represent a civilisation of culture and Mammon, and a policy of crime at war with moral righteousness.  They are the “Powers” of a hard-hearted military Christendom, politically dechristianised, the very “Horns” in John’s Apocalypse, and, in their last state, allies of the Antichrist in the persecution of God’s saints.  And to such an outcome present signs are not wanting.  The championship, by Christian governments, of anti-Christian Turkey, an empire historically organised to shed Christian blood; the championship of a power whose chief sits at the Golden Horn as the “Shadow of God,” “Lord of two continents,” and “King of Kings,” to whom “Allah” has committed the rule of the world, an Antichrist, a hater of Christians, open rejecter of Christ as the Saviour of the world; an impostor who denies the deity of Christ, and the divine and eternal relation of the “Father” and the “Son,” whose ritual is the stated massacre of God’s saints, whose reward for massacre is a sensual paradise, whose alternatives to all mankind are the “Koran or the Sword,” - is enough to make the “fury” of God rise in His face.  Since the world began, no greater crime has been committed - save the crucifixion of Christ - than the introduction of this organised anti-Christian power, in 1856, into the family of civilised and Christian nations by the so-called “Christian Powers” themselves after the Crimean War, which cost 300,000 lives and 300,000,000 pounds sterling, and in the face of gigantic massacres whose atrocities made the blood of mankind run cold.  And all the more unutterably guilty have been the “Powers,” since the subsequent massacres in 1860, 1876 and 1894 to 1897, in south-eastern Europe, Crete, Greece, Armenia, with the slaughter of 130,000 Christians, and the destruction of the homes of 1,000,000 sufferers, and the agonies, tortures and dishonour of mothers, daughters and babes, which have been allowed by the “Powers” to pass un-avenged.


Immeasurable, save by God Himself, is the unforgotten crime of Christendom, since shamelessly, as openly, by “Concert of the Powers,” the championship of the “integrity of the Ottoman Empire” is justified by the doctrine of the “Balance of Power,” the “Peace of Europe,” the “Interests of Bondholders,” and the “Necessities of Commerce and Trade,” in short, “Business Interests.”  A compact such as this, by the so-called “Christian governments” of Europe, which hereby prove themselves to be a federation of stock-jobbing companies of royal birth, intermarried, wearing crowns on their heads and backed by standing armies and fleets, ruling the world, is enough to excite universal anarchy and revolution, and is a challenge to God to vindicate His Word.  These “Powers” are instruments of oppression and persecution, leagued to promote injustice, despotism, inhumanity, and every evil work in the name of Christianity, and bent chiefly on self-aggrandisement, increase of commerce, trade, wealth, extent of territory, and supremacy each over the other.  To modern rulers thus leagued, under their common sceptre of Mammon, and to all the world’s financial strength, God has said, “Your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell shall not stand.” (Isaiah 28: 18.)


As a party in the judgment the kingdoms are marching to their last division and their doom, and calling for their last leader.  The “Horns” need a master, and will find one “in the time appointed.”  Bondholders” hungering after “dividends,” and the Governments in partnership with them as their police, must reckon with Him to whom God will “divide” a portion with the great, and He will “divide” the spoil with the strong.  It will be the last “Concert of Europe,” when the “kings and princes, and the chief captains, and the rich, and the strong,” shall cry to the rocks and the mountains to “fall” on them and hide them “from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb.” (Rev. 6: 15-17.)  Broken shall be the whole “commercial system” of the world, now ruling all governments and nations. (Ezek. 27: 1-36 ; Rev. 18: 1-24; Isa. 24: 1-12.) Then the Horn will be judged, and the Colossal Image become “as the chaff of the summer threshing floor.”  A new age will heave into history, and the “Kingdom” come.  Truth will spring out of the earth and Righteousness look down from heaven, and here on this present earth, as in heaven, God’s will shall be done.  It is the Vision we have been considering, and the Vision is true, and the interpretation sure.



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CHAPTER FOUR [Pages 39-48]




(Daniel, Chapter 7. continued. – The Little Horn. – His Names – The Great Tribulation – Witness-bearing – The Ancient of Days – The Judges in the Judgment – Angels – Books Opened – Complete Retribution – The Son of Man – Effort to Evade the Chiliastic Doctrine of the Book – The Monarch of the Fifth Empire – The Kingdom and the People of the Saints.)







As to the “Little Horn,” in Daniel’s seventh chapter, it is evident that he is the chief party among all the criminals arraigned in the judgment.  Like the rest, he is a king, the head of a kingdom, both symbolised in one.  Bad as the rest have been, this one is worse, transcending them all in his crimes.  The hostility of all the ancient empires to Israel is here.  The principles, policy, selfishness, pride and anti-Christianity of all the Horns find here their highest expression.  He is the product of his times.  Little at first, yet he mounts to greatness among his fellows, his first achievement, the subversion of “three kings” who stand in his way (7: 24).  He differs from the rest, having “eyes,” the symbol of wisdom, science and circumspection, and of craft and cunning withal, a “mouth” and “voice” arrogant against the Most High (7: 11, 25), and a “look” stouter than that of his fellows (7: 20).  He “makes war with the saints,” and for three and a half years “wears them out,” and “prevails” against them, “changing their times and laws” (7: 21, 25).  He is “slain, destroyed, his body given to the burning flame,” and his “dominion consumed and destroyed unto the end” (7: 11, 26).  In all these reports he is “diverse” from the rest (7: 23, 24).  If his rise is rapid, his reign is short and his ruin complete.


The different names under which he is known are many.  He is “the prince that shall come on wing of abomination, a desolator” (9: 26); the concluder of a treaty or “covenant” with the masses of the Jewish people, for “one week,” and breaker of the same, permitting their ancient worship, then causing it to cease in the middle of the week (9: 27); one who sets up “the abomination” that causes desolation, foretold by our Lord (Matt. 24: 15); “that wicked” in Isaiah 11: 4; the “enemy that invades like a flood” (Isa. 59: 19); and whose end is in the “overflowing” (Dan. 9: 26, 27).  He is “the king” who comes to his end at Jerusalem with “none to help him” (Dan. 11: 36, 45); he is Paul’s “man of sin,” to whom the apostle applied the title given by the Maccabees to his prototype – “sinful man,” a “root of sin.” (1 Mace. 1: 10; 2: 62; 2 Thess. 2: 3.)  He is “the Antichrist” of John (1 John, 2: 18); the personal “Beast” that “ascends out of the bottomless pit,” wars with the saints and slays the “two Witnesses” of Christ (Rev. 11: 7, 3); “Apollyon,” the destroyer (Rev. 9: 11); the “Beast” in Revelations 13: 5, to whom Satan gives his power, throne, and great “authority,” a mysterious person, of whom it is said that he once “was” on this earth, but “is not” now, yet “shall ascend out of the abyss,” “be present,” then shall “go into perdition” (Rev. 17: 18), a very “son of perdition,” a “lawless one,” whose coming is with all the “energy of Satan,” and “with signs and lying wonders, and with all deceit of unrighteousness for them that perish,” teaching “the lie” that both Christ and Christianity are a fraud (2 Thess. 2: 9-12), and whom “the Lord Jesus shall slay with the spirit of His mouth, and destroy with the brightness of His coming.” (2 Thess. 2: 8.)


He is described again as “an eighth” in Revelations 17: 11, one who stands out above all his fellows in bad pre-eminence, as not only a “Beast” and a “Devil,” but as a “God,” sitting “in the Temple of God” in Jerusalem, “showing himself that he is God,” the self-exalting “opposer” of God (2 Thess. 2: 4; Dan. 8: 11; 11: 36), but is a “Man” whose secular and anti-Sabbatic monogram is “666,” the number of his name. (Rev. 13: 18.)  Such is the “Little Horn” Daniel saw in vision - a Satanic re-appearing military leader, atheist, Antichrist and supreme imperial ruler of the last times, in whom, by consent of the Horns, is vested the whole power of apostate governments in Europe, Asia and Africa, within the limits of the old Roman territory; himself and his allies the destroyers of Rome (Rev. 17: 12-18), and whose last campaign, following Rome’s destruction, is his invasion of the Holy Land, where he comes to his end. (Daniel 11: 40-45; Revelations 19: 11-2l.)


And complete will be the retribution, unto ages of ages.  There is an eternity in justice, and the protest of right against wrong, of innocence and weakness against oppression, and the call for long-delayed satisfaction, are immortal.  No law or prescription exempts from doom the nominally Christian yet actually dechristianised nations and governments of the earth.  It is not possible that the Horn and his hosts shall be victorious in the “War of the Great Day of God Almighty.”  Such victory would be out of harmony with the epoch of Judgment, the law of righteousness, the destiny of Israel, and the entrance of the kingdom of God.  The time has come for the Son of Man to overturn all Gentile power and crush the Horn in whose brain now floats the empire, for ever.  Foredoomed to everlasting punishment is the entire host of anti-Christianity with their blaspheming prince at their head.  Israel’s victory is assured.  The overthrow of the Antichrist and his hosts before the Son of Man is tragic.  The hissing thunderbolt, the lightning, the bedazzlement, the shock, the brimstone as at Sodom, the darkness as in Egypt, the driving hailstone a talent’s weight, the earthquake dividing the mountain, the vertigo, the reeling as when Saul fell from his horse, the plague, the panic, the prayer to the rocks, the mutual slaughter - these will be effective, the symbols of a severer and longer punishment.  How insignificant the armies of the earth, and impotent the vain eruptions of the Horn “in that day!”  Man plays a small part in such a scene.  In such a crisis, freighted with loss to all Gentile power, and with victory to God’s people, lies the “Progress of the Nations,” the “Peace of the World,” and the “Triumph of the Kingdom of God.”  It scandalises the diplomacies of courts, and mocks the coalition of kings.


This Horn is the Hero of the “Great Tribulation” foretold not only by Daniel (7: 25; 12: 1), but also by Moses (Deut. 32: 36-43); Balaam (Numb. 24: 23), Isaiah (26: 13-21), Jeremiah (30: 7), our Lord (Matt. 24: 15-21), (and parallels), by Paul (2 Thess. 1: 6, 7; 2: 8-12), and fully pictured by John. (Rev. 3: 8, 9; 6: 9-11; 7: 14; 11: 2, 7; 12: 6, 12, 14, 17; 12: 1-18; 14: 12; 20: 4.)  It will be a tribulation sorer than any yet preceding under Manasseh, Antiochus, Nero, the Caliphs and Popes, or Sultans of modem days, a time of world-wide trial and sore temptation for the people of God, a time of suffering, death and martyrdom for Jesus’ sake, a time “such as never was since there was a nation, even to that same time” (Dan. 12: 1); “such as never was since the beginning of the world, no, nor ever shall be.” (Matt. 24: 21.)  By such intense expressions, so indescribably solemn, and full of faithful warning, we learn the unparalleled importance of this epoch for the kingdom of God.  It is the crisis of the kingdom of Christ in its final struggle with the apostate powers of the earth, and with the kingdom of Satan under the lead of the last Antichrist.  Nor are the indications of its approach obscure.  Coming events cast their shadows before.”


When the so-called “Christian Powers,” the “Horns” in their present distribution, are in concert with anti- Christianity for the sake of gain, and Mammon sways the septre over moral righteousness, and national churches, the stalled stipendiaries of the State, have become a salt that is savourless, powerless to compel their rulers to enforce justice, or defend the inalienable rights of man grounded in his personality, or protect the saints of God from massacre; when the kings and rulers of the earth and Christian governments panoplied for war, are partners with Mammon in orgies of blood for selfish ends, binding oppression on the necks of the poor, seeking by force to wrench from the weak their lawful possessions, the heart steeled to human sympathy, the ear deaf to every appeal for help, and conscience dead - it is only a step or two till Sin comes to its height, and Sin’s last leader must appear.  International politics will generate events subversive to all existing international relations, and create new alliances and new combinations leading up to the final crisis no summer sunshine nor pleasing landscape in nature can avert.  The “Day of the Lord” will steal in like a thief, and the “Great Tribulation” come.  Viewed from a human standpoint, it can only be the necessary evolution of modern statecraft, a Nemesis the apostate powers have vainly hoped to avoid.  From the Divine standpoint, it means the Judgment of the world.


God’s true people everywhere will be called to their best - bearing and most honoured trial of their patience and faith in behalf of Christ.  Intensity of suffering, however, will not avail to divert them from their fidelity. As in Manasseh’s day, in Maccabean times, in Nero’s day, in Moslem and Papal times, and as in Bulgarian, Armenian, and Cretan crises, so, once more, will their steadfast love, their endurance and martyrdom only prove that He who calls them to such a trial has “counted them worthy of the kingdom of God.” (2 Thess. 1: 5.)  The patriot’s consecration of his life as an offering on the altar of his country will be more than surpassed by that ardour of love for Christ which will make His saintsrejoice” even to be “killed all the day long” for His sake, and to “glory in tribulation.” (Rom. 8: 36.)  Here is the patience of the saints,” “Here are they who keep the commandments of Godin opposition to the orders, and “hold fast the testimony of Jesusin opposition to “the lie,” of the Antichrist. (Rev. 12: 17; 13: 10; 14: 12.)  Divine grace supports their souls with strength according to their day, and confirms their faith by rich promises of glory and honour made to the overcomer, by the example of Christ, the memories of the past, the sealing of the Spirit, the election of God, and the certain knowledge that the Coming of the Lord is near.  The sweetest of all the notes they will sing is this:-


Oh, what, if we are Christ’s,

Is earthly shame or loss?

Bright shall the crown of glory be,

When we have borne the cross.”


As to the “Ancient of Days,” literally “One ancient in respect of days,” older than all the late-made gods of the heathen, transcending all time, He is “Jehovah” Himself, the Eternal, in the absolute Unity of His essence, God.  It is He, according to Old Testament representation, who constitutes the Judgment, (1) by descending from heaven to earth, (2) by placing the thrones, (3) by seating the judges upon them, (4) by opening the books.  The white garment denotes His majesty, rank, holiness, righteousness; the white hair His antiquity, even Eternity; the throne of enveloping flame His avenging justice; the revolving wheels of fire the rapidity of His advancing judgments; and the stream of radiating flame the persistence of His judicial activity till His strange work is done.  It is said: He “did sit” but only after He “came.” (7: 9, 22.)  This is of first importance for the interpretation, as we shall presently see.  It was not needful to say that the “Ancient of Days” came “in clouds,” since that is the Old Testament view of the descent of Jehovah to judge the nations and His people. He is always spoken of as “coming down” in glorious epiphany with fire-flame and “in clouds,” and attended by “angels.” (Exod. 19: 16; Psa. 47: 6; Zech. 9: 14; Isa. 27: 13; Exod. 3: 2; 19: 18.)  He bowed the heavens also and came down.” (Psa. 18:. 9-15.)  He “came down on Mount Sinai.” (Exod . 19: 16-20.)  He “rideth into Egypt on a swift cloud.” (Isa. 19: 1.)  Our God shall come and not keep silence; a fire shall devour before Him.” (Psa. 1: 3.)  The same is said of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. (1 Cor. 3: 13; 2 Thess. 1: 7-10; Matt. 24: 30; Rev. 1: 7; 14: 14.)  Here, in Daniel’s vision, it is God the Father, the “Aged One,” who first descends, and constitutes the judgment in the cloud-region overhanging the earth.  He “sits” in flame and storm.


As to the Judges who sit on the thrones, the vision in silent, because the New Testament Church was not yet a fact in history, although there is enough in the Old Testament, elsewhere, to indicate who some of the Judges are.  It is in the New Testament, however, we learn without mistake who the co-assessors are.  In the Revelation to John which develops the Judgment-Scene in Daniel, the Second Coming of Christ is placed under the Seventh Trumpet and after the Sixth Vial, at which time the resurrection of the holy dead occurs (Rev. 11: 15-18; 16: 15, 16), and therefore before the Judgment upon the Antichrist, the Beast.  It is immediately before the final slaughter in the valley of Johoshaphat, “outside the city,” the reaping of the holy living ones by holy angels, and the rapture of the saints, occur, just before the Seventh Vial is poured out. (Rev. 14: 14-16, 17-20.)  It is therefore at the close of the Anti-christ’s 1,260 days the Advent occurs.  The same representation is given in 2 Thess. 2: 1-3, and in Matt. 24: 29-31, 40, 41; 25: 1.  In Daniel the same order of events is seen.  The resurrection of the holy dead at the Second Coming of Christ occurs at the close of the last 1,260 days, the end of the “Great Tribulation.” (Dan. 12: 1; 7: 13.)  Then, just prior to the last stroke of judgment is the “gathering” of God’s saints by angelic ministry. (Psa. 1: 1-5; Matt. 24: 29; 2 Thess. 2: 1; 1 Thess 4: 14-18.)  Clear, therefore, it is that the co-assessors in the “Great Assize” (Dan. 7: 9), are the Risen and Glorified Saints, since the “thrones” on which they sit in Rev. 20: 4, are the same “thrones” Daniel saw in 7: 9.  Paul declares “the saints shall judge the world” (1 Cor. 6: 2), his authority being the text in Daniel 7: 9.


As to the angels, the whole angelic world is here as “executors” of the Judgment by the Son of Man. (Jude 14, 15)  Their innumerable number is given as “10,000 times 10,000 and thousands of thousands” (Dan. 7: 10); at the very least 204,000,000, but more, since the extent of the multiplication is impossible, “a multitude that no man can number” (Rev. 5: 11; 7: 9 Heb. 12: 22), because of the indefinite terms “thousands of thousands.”  All these, seen standing before the throne, wait on the “Ancient of Days” to minister judgment on the allied millions of the “Horn,” “angels of might.” (2 Thess. 1: 7.)  Already they have reaped the righteous, and now stand ready to reap the wicked, and “take out of the kingdom all things that offend and them that do iniquity.” (Matt. 13: 41.)  Gabriel is there, and Michael is there, erect for Israel in the last crisis (Dan. 12: 1; Rev. 12: 7), and Raphael, Israfil, Ithuriel and Uriel standing in front of the light of the sun. (Rev. 19: 17.)  Over against the wailing Concert of Europe the embattled hosts of God will stand, ready to make the last charge with “lightnings and thunders,” “hailstones a talent’s weight,” “snares, fire, brimstone and a horrible tempest, the portion of the wicked,” and turning the swords of the wicked “against themselves,” will approve the righteous judgment of God.  Solemnly they will intone the words, “Thou art Righteous, 0 Lord, which art and wast and shalt be, because Thou hast judged thus; for they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and Thou hast given them blood to drink!” (Rev. 16: 5, 6.)  Fowls of the air, come, gather yourselves together to the supper of the great God; that ye may eat the flesh of kings and of captains, of mighty men, of horses and riders, free and bond, small and great!” (Rev. 19: 17, 18.)  This is apostate Christendom’s cup! - blood for blood, massacre for massacre, the righteous judgment of God, the end for ever of bloodshed and war!


The solemnity of the scene is augmented by the fact that “the Books were opened.” (Dan. 7: 10.)  These “Books” are the records of the crimes of the Horn, the Beast and his allies, the sins of the ten confederate kingdoms of the last times in Europe, Asia and Africa; the sins of which they are heirs at law; the sins of misgovernment, the sins committed against the saints of God.  Wherever else the Judgment will strike so far as this particular scene is concerned, it strikes the nations of Christendom within the limits of the old Roman territory ruled by the Horn.  They are the records of the living nations, of the kings, judges and rulers of the earth (Psa. 2: 10), who have taken counsel against the Lord and His anointed (Ps. 2: 2) - the books, papers, files of their Gentile cabinets, their Concert and their ruptures, their treaties and diplomacies, their guilty apathy, procrastination and venality when action was demanded in vindication of the right; their deeds, words, joint-notes, protocols and scheming policies, the motives of all supporting or opposed to the Horn.  They are the archives, angel-kept, wherein are registered the noonday iniquities and secret midnight work and devices of the “Powers” whose conduct paved the way for the “Great Tribulation,” and made imperative a judgment to punish, in order to save, the nations and rescue the kingdom of God from extinction.


The history of the Last Times is here: The encouragement of anti-Christianity for the sake of gain, the coalition of Christian governments with the guilds of Mammon against justice, truth, religion, humanity and liberty; their covenants made and broken; their rivalries and envies, highway robbery and rapacity; their greed of gold and lust of supremacy; their defiance of Christian sentiment and of every appeal to virtue; their despotism, pride, misgovernment, duplicity, oppression of the weak, and guilty trade with the strong - and most of all, their shedding of innocent blood.  All are here recorded with a pen unerring.  No injustice is forgotten, no massacre or devastated homes, no crimsoned fields strewn with the upturned faces of the dead.  Nor is the name of one who took part in producing such scenes, or consented to the wrongs that begat them, misspelled, or the place of his residence misread.  The whole apostasy of Christendom, the Horn’s loud-mouthed arrogance and the words of the cry, “We will not have this man to reign over us,” are written in the “Books,” and judgment by the records must pass on the kingdoms whose boast was their Christianity, culture, civilisation. Such the solemn scrutiny.


Old Testament prophecy always represents “Jehovah,” the absolute God, as “coming down” from His throne far above all heavens to “the cloud region overhanging the earth, to hold Judgment.  It is He who “descends” and makes the fire-lit thunder-heaps His throne.  The peculiarity of the amazing scene in Daniel 7. is this, that neither the name “Jehovah,” nor the name “God” is employed, but that two parties, the Father, or “Aged One,” i.e., the “Ancient of Days,” and the “Son of Man,” who by His relation to the Father is also the Son of God, appear in the same Judgment at the end of the 1,260 days of the Horn’s career. (Dan. 7: 25, 27; 12: 7.)  The vision assumes the incarnation or birth of Christ, afterwards foretold in Daniel 9: 25, His crucifixion in 9: 27, and His ascension to the Father’s throne, from where, long concealed, He now appears revealed in this vision. It is the Second Advent of Christ that is made known in Daniel 7. since only then is the kingdom given to Israel.  This vision presents the Father as first of all descended to Judgment in clouds overhanging the earth, angels attending.  Then Daniel beheld the entry of “One like the Son of Man” into the same scene, also coming with the clouds of heaven, and coming “to” where the Ancient of Days was already seated, viz., over the earth, both angels and clouds bringing him “near before Him.”  And this in order that then and there “dominion” involving judgment might be given to the Son, and a “kingdom” besides.  Christ referred to this vision when He said: “The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son,” and “hath given Him authority to execute judgment also, because He is the Son of Man.” (John 5: 22, 27.)  Behold, He cometh with clouds and every eye shall see Him.” (Rev. 1: 7.)


What we have here, therefore, is the glorious King of the Fifth Kingdom to succeed all others, and be succeeded by none.  In prophecy, kingdoms are defined by the titles of their founders.  The great Beasts are four kings that shall arise” (Dan. 7: 17), Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander, and Caesar.  The Ten Horns are Ten Kings that shall arise” (7: 24), the Ten Allied Monarchs of the last days.  The Little Horn is another that shall arise after them” (7: 24).  So does the “Son of Man” appear in the vision as the Founder of the Fifth Kingdom, the successor of the four, a kingdom universal over all the earth, un-succeeded and everlasting.  It is the kingdom of the “Son of Man” in victory at His Second Coming.  All the solemn scenery surrounding the “Ancient of Days” surrounds the “Son of Man.”  It is the Monarch of the Fifth Empire we have here who comes in the clouds of heaven, seated in royal splendour and solemn pomp on the “throne of His glory” (Matt. 25: 31), angels His escort, encircling flame His illumination.  Flashes of glory alternate with blackness of midnight, attended by trumpet, storm, fire, and deep-rolling thunder.  It is as a Warrior and Judge that Daniel sees Him.  He comes, not to consume the nations, but the wicked among them, who know not God nor obey the Gospel of His Son, to smite the Antichrist, destroy the Ten Horns, their governments and dynasties, wipe out all Gentile politics and power, make the Colossal Statue as “the chaff of the summer threshing-floor,” and set up His own kingdom in righteousness and peace, wide as the world, all crowns on His head and on the heads of His saints.  It is what we have in Psalms 2. and 72.


As to the last party named in the Judgment scene, they are called the “Saints of the Most High,” who receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even “for ever and ever” (7: 18, 22), the “People of the Saints of the Most High,” to whom is given the kingdom and the greatness of the kingdom, not in a super-earthly or celestial sphere, but “underneath all heavens” (Dan. 7: 27).  The New Testament widens the term “saints” to embrace all who have Abraham’s faith, whether Jews or Gentiles.



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CHAPTER FIVE [Pages 49-59]




(Daniel, Chapter 8 – “Time of the End” of the Third Empire – The Kingdom not mentioned – Date of the Vision – Place of the Vision – The Vision itself – The Eastern Question – The Ram and Rough Goat – Cyrus and Alexander – Antiouchus Epiphanes – Vision of Horror at Jerusalem – Angelic Dialogue – Apparition of a Man – The 2,300 Evening-mornings – Interpretation of the Vision – Time of Fulfilment – Vain Efforts to Identify the Two Little Horns – Similarities and Dissimilarities – Grounds of the Same – Purpose of the Vision.)







1. In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first. 2. And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.  3. Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.  4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward, so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.  5. And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.  6. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.  7. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.  8. Therefore the he goat waxed very great; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven. 9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.  10. And it waxed great, even unto the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.  11. Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.  12. And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.  13. Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden underfoot?  14. And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.  15. And it came to pass, when I, even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.  16. And I heard a man’s voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.  17.  So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, 0 son of man: for at the time of the end shall be the vision.  18. Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.  19. And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.  20. The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings af Media and Persia.  21. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king.  22. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.  23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, tenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.  24. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people.  25. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.  26. And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true; wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days.  27. And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterwards I rose up, and did the king’s business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.”


The typical fulfilment of this prophecy of Daniel 8. lies to a great extent historically in pre-Christian times, a century and a half before the birth of Christ.  At the same time this typical fulfilment, as an organic and mediating link in a complex chain of prophecy having one end in view, points to higher fulfilment in the future “Time of the End,” and is in harmony with the visions in Daniel 2. and 7.  It reaches to the “Last Indignation” of God against the Jewish apostasy (8: 19), an “End” not yet apparent in history, and which comes alone with the destruction of the last Antichrist, the Horn in Daniel 7: 8, and “prince that shall come” in 9: 27, and the wilful and atheistic “king” in 11: 36, 40-45.  Thus the past typical fulfilment of Daniel 8. in Antiochus Epipnanes as the Little Horn that afflicts the Holy People, points to a higher fulfilment in the last Antichrist in future days.  Then the kingdom comes with the “last end of the indignation,” viz., the close of the Great Tribulation.


1.  As to the date of the vision.  It was in , “the third year of the reign of the King Belshazzar” (7: 1.)  Assuming that Belshazzar is the “Bel-sar-usur” of the monuments, and according to Oriental usage, a “king,” the date of the vision is B.C. 538, the year of Babylon’s fall and of his feast (Dan. 5: 1-30), first year of Darius, the Mede, to whom Cyrus had given the rule over Babylon, the year when Daniel was thrown into the lions’ “den,” the second year before the edict of Cyrus, B.C. 536, releasing the Jews, sixty-eight of the seventy years of the captivity having passed away.


2.  As to the place of the vision.  The prophet, though bodily in Babylon, was transported in spirit to Susa, whose Assyrian name was “Shushan,” the city of the lily and the lotus-flower, once the capital of the Elamite kings as far back as the days of Abraham.  Situated on the river Ulai, whose waters alone the Persian monarchs drank - the Eulaeus, or Choaspes, or modern Karun - it was conquered by Sardanapalus, B.C. 1650, afterwards by Cyrus, and became one of the capitals of the Medo-Persian Empire, the chief city in the province of Elam. The province lay in the lower valley of the Euphrates, called by the ancients “Anzan,” over which Cyrus reigned before his conquest of Media, Lydia and Babylon.  On the south is the Persian Gulf.  The city of Shushan is memorable in Scripture as, not only the scene of Daniel’s vision, but as the home of Nehemiah, who was “cup-bearer” to Artaxerxes, and as the scene of the whole Book of Esther.  Modern English and French explorers have excavated, from its tumuli, relies of its ancient “Apadana,” or “palace,” magnificent in Assyrian, Egyptian and Corinthian architecture, and brilliant with colours of crimson, and gold, silver and blue.  At Shushan stands the tomb of Daniel, venerated by the Moslem, and sacredly guarded.  The Holy Spirit chose the place as the locality of the vision here, because the vision itself foretells the overthrow of the empire of Cyrus by Alexander, who occupied the city.  The prophet’s position in the vision is not “in the palace” (as our English version reads), but “near the fortress,” encircled as it was by the river.


3.  The vision itself.  It is no less than that of the “Eastern Question,” a vision of conflicting civilisations, the Asiatic and European struggling for the mastery of the Old World.  Daniel sees a “Ram,” starting from the East, and pushing westward, northward and southward, an effort of Asia to overrun Europe and Africa, the effort of the Medo-Persian empire.  He sees, in turn, the counter-effort of Europe to overrun Asia and Africa, the effort of the “Goat,” or Graeco-Macedonian empire.  It is Oriental and Occidental civilisation in collision, contending for universal rule.  On the one hand is an invading host crossing the Tigris and Euphrates, and rolling like a tide westward to the Mediterranean; on the other a less numerous but more intelligent, active and efficient one crossing the Hellespont and darting eastward, conquering everything before it; in both cases tribulation for the Jewish people, and Gentile down-treading for Palestine, the union-point of three continents.


These great world-movements, like those afterwards between the north and south are mirrors, of like collisions, yet to occur in the last days, marking the “Time of the End” - the East seeking to control the West, the West to control the East, Palestine at last the scene of the hottest conflict; and furthermore, the same international struggles involving not only the north and the south, but all the semi-civilised nations and barbarous tribes outside the limits of the old Roman territory.  It is the fixed law of history, ancient mediaeval and modern. There is something very impressive in the thought that the Holy Spirit, an angel from heaven, and inspired prophecy, should so splendidly anticipate the inductions of the ablest modern scientific study in the field of history, and forecast, two thousand years ago, the very laws of historical movement, whose recent mention has crowned with laurels the supposed discoveries of them.  And the thought that Daniel wrote his book, not only in the face of his apostate countrymen, but in the face and front of Babylonian and Persian supremacy, announcing the doom of both, and of all world-empires and kingdoms, adds grandeur to the heroism of the prophet, as it adds tenfold interest to his predictions.  But prophecy is a light and a lesson.  The great world-movement of history is planetary motion. “It returneth again according to its circuit.”  The End-Time will renew the Old-Time, though under new conditions.  That which hath been is that which shall be, and what is done is that which shall be done, and there is no new thing under the sun!” (Ecel. 1: 6, 9.)  Lifting his eyes, entranced, the prophet sees the two horned Ram standing in front of the Ulai on its opposite side, the horns of unequal height, the higher nearest the stream, denoting the superiority of the Persian over the Median element in the Medo-Persian empire of Cyrus.  The duality of the dynasties is merged in the unity of the empire.  The Ram’s motion indicates the conquest of the whole Medo-Persian sucession for two hundred years.  Invincibly the Ram butts westward, toward Babylonia, Lydia, Asia Minor and Greece; northward toward Armenia, the Caspian, Bactria, Scythia; southward toward Egypt, Lybia and Ethiopia (8: 14).  A bounding goat with projecting horn, interocular, comes leaping from the West, and with unexampled speed skipping across the face of the earth, as if spurning the ground, rushes with irresistible and mad onset into the Ram, breaking his horns, casting him down, stamping upon him; no allies able to save him out of the goat’s power.


That “Notable Horn” is young Alexander the Great, first king of the Graeco-Macedonian empire, but twenty years of age, whose first leap at the Ram was across the Hellespont, B.C. 334, with 40,000 men, and whose rapidly fought battles from the Granicus, B.C. 334, to Arbela, B.C. 331, thence to the banks of the Indus and the Nile, thence again to Shushan, B.C. 325, before dying at Babylon, B.C. 323, broke the horns of the Ram, cast him down, stamped on him, paid him in full for his invasion of Greece, and ended for ever the Medo-Persian empire.  Notable Horn!”  In the words of Napoleon, “Alexander deserved all the glory the world has given him.”  By such symbols the Holy Spirit foretold the fortunes of the Persian and Greek empires.


While the prophet is gazing he sees the Notable Horn “broken” reads therein the premature death of Alexander and beholds the “Four Notable Horns,” rising in its place, toward the four points of the compass.  They are the four kingdoms into which Alexander’s empire was divided, viz., Syria, Egypt, Macedonia and Asia Minor (8: 8), all of which have been ruled and are now claimed by the Turk.  Out of one of them,” he holds an upstart waxing to greatness, a “Little Horn,” pushing southward toward Egypt, eastward toward Persia, Media, Armenia and Babylon, and toward “the Beauty,” i.e., the Holy Land (8: 9).*


[* Nearly all standard expositors hold that Antiochus from 168 to 164 B.C. acted very like the future Last Antichrist will act. -EDITOR OF ENGLISH EDITION.]


The vision presents to the eye of the prophet a scene of sacrilegious horror enacted typically by Antiochus Epiphanes in the temple-court and city of Jerusalem; an attempt to exterminate the holy people and the religion of Jehovah, and substitute for both a heathen colony and the Greek idolatry; the first attempt ever made in history to force a people to forswear their faith, or suffer death for disobedience.  The God-defying insolence of the Horn was, till then, without a parallel.  Other conquerors of the Jews had, at least, respected their religion. This one had no respect.  Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus and Alexander, paid homage to “God, Most High,” and bowed before the holy oracles.  This one pays none, and tramples the “Truth” to the ground.


With self-magnifying egotism he invades the Holy Land, and raging in hate against the Holy Covenant, takes the Holy City, assails the “Host of Heaven,” i.e., Israel, casts a part to the ground, “stamping” on them, among them the “Stars” of the host, the princes and priests of Israel.  Even to the “Prince of the Host,” i.e., the High Priest, Onias III., he opposes himself, “doing great things,” taking away the “Daily,” the stated morning and evening service at the altar; polluting and degrading (not “destroying”) the place of the sanctuary, erecting a pagan altar upon the Altar of Burnt-Offering, sacrificing a swine upon it, sprinkling with swine’s broth the holy places, and setting up beside the altar a statue of Jupiter.  Yet more, in his madness he continues his work, introducing the youth of Jerusalem to the Greek gymnasia, customs and games established for their recreation, weaning them away from their religion, supplanting the practice of virtue by the lewd sports of Hercules, the Feast of Tabernacles by the festival of Bacchus, and teaching them to undo, by artificial means, the token of their national distinction.


With those who “forsake the Holy Covenant” (11: 30), he enters into a new “Covenant” (1 Mace. 1: 11, 12), putting up the high priesthood for sale to the highest bidder, farming out the mitre, breast-plate and robes of Aaron’s office for 440 talents of gold as annual payment for the dignity; the apostate bidder selling the golden altar of incense, the golden candlestick, the table of shewbread and the sacred vessels, in the market of Tyre, for 34800 talents, to pay Antiochus the annual sums demanded.  To crown the infamy he winks at the assassination of the lawful High Priest, Onias III., because protesting against the sacrilege; defaces, by obscene pictures, and casts to the ground, the Pentateuch and the Prophets, the authoritative law and sanction of the Hebrew worship; forbids Jewish rites, orders the erection of idol altars in every town and city, massacres 80,000 of God’s saints in his first attack, 20,000 at the second; devastates the city, and with abominations surpassing those of Manasseh, and lust beyond that of a Sardanapalus, defiles the place, the holiest known on earth since the beginning of the creation of God.  Thus does he “do.”


The full story of his deeds, here recited only in part, is found in the Books of the Maccabees - a picture of horror symbolised in outline, in the vision here given to the prophet.  Using the language of the Levitical law, in Numbers 4: 23, 8: 24, in which the word “Host” is employed to denote the Hebrew sacrificial “service,” the prophet states that “a host was given” to the tyrant, i.e., allowed to him by God’s permission, because of Israel’s transgression in forsaking God’s covenant - a heathen “service” ministered by heathen priests within the temple-court, in place of the daily offering, and that the Horn “practised and prospered” in unhindered activity - the Jewish worship abolished, the sanctuary and Jewish Host trodden under foot; apostasy installed in the form of an abomination in the very precincts of the temple.  To the soul of the prophet the vision was appalling. (Dan. 8: 10-12.)


4.  The Angelic Dialogue.  While the prophet is gazing, at the horror, suddenly he hears “One Holy One speaking, and another Holy One saying to that Certain Holy One,” as yet unknown “Palmoni,” or “Peloni Almoni,” that, “Some One or Other,” a “Wonderful Numberer” – “How long the vision of the Daily, and the transgression of the desolation, giving both the sanctuary and the Host to be trodden down?” (8: 13).  We have here a glimpse into the angel world.  The Biblical angels are the “Holy Watchers” (Dan. 4: 13, 17-23; 6: 22), whose vigils remain unbroken, the sleepless sentinels of heaven who take interest in all the affairs of the earth, among whom are Gabrial (6: 22, 8: 16, 9: 21, 10: 10, 14, 18, 21, 11: 1), and Michael (10: 13, 21; 12: 1), and over whom the Un-slumbering Keeper of Israel presides (Psa. 121: 4).  Daniel hears Gabriel asking Palmonihow long” the horror shall be, Palmoni answering “Until 2,300 evening-mornings; and the Sanctuary shall be justified,” i.e., restored to its lawful use, since so long as profaned it lay under condemnation.  The dialogue is evidently meant for the benefit of Daniel, to whom the vision was given.  If the “2,300 evening-mornings” are whole days, they ate six years, four months, twenty days.


5.  The Apparition of a Man.  The holy prophet is still perplexed.  He betrays his confusion and anxiety to understand the “meaning” of what he had seen.  It was not enough that the duration of the horror should be determined.  He would know the import of the scene itself.  I, even I Daniel, would know the meaning.”  The Lord regards his distress and commands immediate relief.  That Certain Saint,” the “Holy Some One or Other,” “Palmoni,” as yet unseen, utters his voice.  With a tone of superior authority and dignity, such as belongs only to One made higher than the angels, He bids the questioner in the dialogue make known the “meaning” to Daniel.  If we really desire to know the “meaning” of God’s revelation, God will grant our desire.  From between the banks of the Ulai, where hovered the form mysterious above its waters, the order comes, “Gabriel, make this one to understand the vision.”  Holy angels are admitted to the secrets of God, and reveal to mortals His mind.  The prophet, affected by his environment, and overborne by more than magnetic power, and weak as a child, passes into a “deep sleep.”  The angel “touches” him, imparting strength to stand erect and receive the revelation.  Gabriel bespeaks his closest attention, since the vision relates to the “Time of the End” and God’s “Last Indignation” against Israel, for their apostasy from His holy covenant.  Understand, 0 son of man, for at the Time of the End the Vision shall be.”  Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the Last End of the Indignation, for at the appointed time is the End” (8: 19).  Solemn the thought, that nothing happens by chance, not merely by man’s free will, but that all history eventuates at the “time appointed” of God.  The angel proceeds to interpret.


6.  The Interpretation of the Vision.  Much of this has already been anticipated.  First of all, the “Ram” and the “Goat” represent the kingdom and kings of the Medo-Persian and Graeco-Macedonian empires.  These are the second and third, and correspond to the Silver and Brass of the Colossus in Daniel 2., and to the Bear and Leopard (or Panther) in chapter 7., 8: 20, 21.  We know that the first empire in the Colossal Image of Daniel 2. is that of Babylon (2: 38), and the second and third those of Medo-Persia and Graecia, or Javan (8: 20, 21).  The fourth, therefore, can only be the Roman, since all history shows that it succeeded Alexander’s broken empire, and the Revelation of John demonstrates the fact that the Ten-Horned Beast in John is the Roman Beast, identical with the Ten-Horned Beast in Daniel.  The Median empire was destroyed by Cyrus in B.C. 549, or eleven years before his capture of Babylon, and to the empire of Macedon, founded by Philip, Alexander added his conquest of Graecia.  It is absolutely certain, therefore, that the fourth empire, in Daniel 2. and 7., is the Roman.  Of the four kingdoms of Alexander’s quadriparted empire, the angel adds that none of them should equal in strength that of Alexander; “not in his power” (8: 22).  Gabriel’s interpretation of the rise and career of this Little Horn is full of political significance, and might be applied, with perfect justice, in most respects, to the rise and career of the Moslem power, and in fact to the international politics of Europe.  The Little Horn will be “a king of fierce countenance” (8: 23), a cruel-faced man, yet more, a master in diplomacy, quick to detect and skilful to frame and understand “dark sentences” (8: 23), i.e., a man of double dealing, expert in obscure and ambiguous propositions, a political intriguer intelligent as a Machiavelli, a Tallyrand, a Sultan; a Vienna, London, or Berlin Congress, dealing deceitfully, uttering lies while pretending to speak truth, entering into covenants and treaties -not purposing to keep them, promising but not performing.  A power among “Powers,” he will be “mighty,” yet “not by his own power” (8: 24), but by the help of other powers, maintaining him, aiding him, and entering into compact with him.  By such means, he should wax to greatness, and persecute God’s saints leagued with apostates from the true faith, men who should espouse his own in order to save their lives.  He shall destroy wonderfully,” the world shall be astonished at his cruelty.  Practising and prospering, he “destroys the mighty and the holy people” (8: 24), by means of his policy (8: 25).  Affecting to favour peace, while preparing for war, he should “cause craft to prosper in his hand,” i.e., his own intrigues to be successful (8: 25), “by peace destroy many,” creating confidence in his promises, then betraying his victims, and thus possess and hold (as did Antiochus) Palestine, Egypt, Macedonia, Syria and Asia Minor, “for an appointed time” (8: 19).  His self-exaltation and deification will be not a momentary passion but an abiding conviction “in his heart” (8: 25), leading him to stand up defiantly even against the “Prince of princes” (8: 25), the God of Israel.  Nevertheless he “shall be broken,” not as other horns are broken in the day of battle, but “without hand” (8: 25), by some mysterious judgment of God.


Five different expressions are used to mark the time when the vision would be accomplished.  (1) The “Time of the End” (8: 17); (2) the “Last End of the Indignation” of God against Israel’s apostasy (8: 19); (3) the “Latter Time of their kingdoms” (8: 23); (4) “when the transgressors are come to the full,” i.e., when Israel’s apostates have filled up the measure of their sins; (5) “for many days,” i.e., many years after the date of the vision (8: 26).


The “Indignation” is a technical term in prophecy, denoting God’s judicial wrath against Israel for their transgression of His covenant, and the “Last End of the Indignation” that final stroke of punishment on all apostates from the covenant immediately preceding the final deliverance of the Jews (Deut. 32: 35-43), and of which the previous strokes (Isa. 10: 23., 28: 23), and the Roman destruction of Jerusalem (Rom. 9: 28) are types.  It is the period of the “Great Tribulation.” (Dan. 12: 1; Matt. 24: 21; Rev. 7: 14; 13: 5.)  It is clear, therefore, that not only was the period of Antiochus’ tyranny B.C. 168-165 not the “Last End of the Indignation,” since the Jews “filled up the measure” of their fathers’ sins by crucifying Christ (Matt. 23: 32), and the “Indignation” again fell upon their city and upon themselves, but that, once more, in the far “Time of the End,” it will fall upon them in the last crisis of their history (7: 26; 9: 27; 10: 14; 11: 40-45; 12: 1, 7, 9.). Therefore the “meaning” of this prophecy is not limited to the times of Antiochus, but chiefly applies to the last 1,260 days of the Horn in Daniel 7.  In this sense, again, the vision is “for many days.”  Every child of Abraham knows the “meaning” of the great phrase “the Time of the End.”  It is the time of the cessation of Israel’s last suffering and unbelief, and their enjoyment of the [millennial] kingdom when Messiah comes.  To that the eyes of Daniel were directed, as were those of Moses and dying Jacob – a goal the desire of all the patriarchs, the transport of the prophets, and the expectation of all the ancient people of God.



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CHAPTER SIX [Pages 60-71]




(Daniel, Chapter 9 – The Seventy Weeks – General Remarks – Place of the Prophecy – Occasion of it – The Prophecy itself – Its Correct Translation – Covers the Prayer – Exposition of the Seventy Weeks – Their Sub-distribution – The Two Intervals – No Year-Day Theory in Daniel – The Seventh Week – The Four Great Ideas of World-view – World History – World Judgment and World Chronology – The Interpretation sure – The Secret Disclosed – The Reasons of the False Interpretation – The Jews as Reckoners of Time – Gentile Conformation – The Jurisdiction of the Seventy Weeks over all New Testament Prophecy – It fixes absolutely the Time-point of the Second Advent.)




Our Lord’s use of the expression, ‘abomination of desolation,’ (Matt. 24: 15), applying it to future times beyond His own day, proves that He interpreted Daniel 9: 26, 27, as a double prophecy, pointing first to the destruction of Jerusalem, and next to the 70th Week that closes the Times of the Gentiles.  His own prophecy thereby became a double one, and for this reason the admonition is given, ‘Let him that readeth understand.’ Clearly, His mind was resting on all the places in Daniel where the expression, ‘abomination of desolation,’ is used, or the idea is given - viz., Daniel 9: 27; 11: 31; 12: 11; the times of Antiochus being regarded as typical of the last times.  Here is seen that law of delay in prophecy and history by which the end of one age becomes the type of the end of another age.


                                                                                                             - Fraidi.





20.  And whiles as I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the Lord my God for the holy mountain of my God; 21. Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.  22. And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, 0 Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.  23. At the beginning of thy suplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.  24. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. 25.  Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.  26. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.  27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the over spreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.”


The great prediction, here, is the answer to a prayer of the prophet, and is found in the last four verses of Daniel, 9: 24-27.  The angel speaks in plain and obvious language, although sometimes of difficult construction, owing to its brief and lapidary style, piling clause upon clause, and even of various interpretation.  The first necessity is that of a good translation, King James’ version being both obscure and defective, and the Revised Version itself not without fault.  Twenty different events are here foretold, in four verses, extending over the Times of the Gentiles, and relating mainly to Jewish affairs.  Among these are the Return of the Jews from exile, the Building of the Second Temple and the City in times of distress; the First Coming of Christ, His Crucifixion, the Destruction of the Rebuilt Temple and City, and subjection of the land and people to war and desolations down to the end of Gentile times.  Still further, the coming of the Antichrist is again predicted as that of “a prince, the one that shall come” (alluding to Dan. 7: 8), a Desolator, on wing of abomination, invading the Holy Land, having previously enacted a covenant, for a Week of Seven Years, with the masses of the Jewish people while in their unbelief, granting the practice of their ancient worship for a financial consideration (as did Antiochus), and as a matter of political necessity; then, in the middle of the “Week,” breaking his covenant by causing “oblation and sacrifice” to cease, and inaugurating the Great Tribulation.  Finally, his end is announced as “in the flood” i.e., in the military overflowing of the Holy City, and under the outpoured vials of the wrath of God.  Elsewhere in the Scriptures a military invasion is compared to the rising of a flood advancing on the land.


Still, again, the angel predicts that, so far from withdrawing the divine mercy from the seed of Abraham, the Lord will crown their last struggle with a six-fold blessing, the sum to them of all salvation.  Six great events shall occur - viz. (1), the finishing of Israel’s national apostasy, called “the transgression, or breach of God’s covenant”; (2), the cessation or end of their “sins”; (3), the covering of their “iniquity”; (4), the introduction of enduring “righteousness”, ; (5), the sealing or verification of “prophecy and vision” concerning them; and (6), the consecration of a new “Holy of Holies,” or Sanctuary, unto God.  In short, Israel will never more be apostate from God, but pardoned, renewed, and restored, will serve Him in “newness of the spirit and not in the oldness of the letter,” nor even wander from His commandments.  Reconciled to God by atoning blood and sanctified by the Holy Spirit, they shall be His people, He their God.  The whole prediction is given under the terms of a definite chronological scheme of definite periods of time, with their included intervals, stretching from Daniel’s day to the Second Coming of Christ.


1.  As to the Date of the Prophecy.  It was “in the first year of Darius, the son of Ahashuerus of the seed of the Medes” (9: 1), who was “made king,” by Cyrus, over the realm of “the Chaldeans” (9: 1, 2), and from whom he “received (not “took”) the kingdom” when Babylon fell.  It was the custom of Oriental kings, Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian, to associate with themselves a co-regent, and of history to date the reign of the associate, not from the date of his sole reign, but from that of his co‑regency, and to honour the associate with the title of “king.”  In the words of Beswick: “The reigns of the kings were counted from the date of co-regency, so that the total length of a dynasty is greater than the actual length would be by counting the sole reign of each.  The associate became the heir-apparent, and was henceforth regarded as king and successor to the throne.”  Thus Daniel calls Nebuchadnezzar “king” before his father’s death, and Belshazzar “king” before the death of Nabonnaid.  What he teaches as to Darius the Mede is that Cyrus, having captured Babylon, and being king of Babylon as well as of Persia, delegated the rule of Babylon to Darius the Mede, he, Cyrus, remaining in the field to pursue his conquests. Thus B.C. 538 was the “first year of Darius, the son of Ahashuerus, of the seed of the Medes.”  With a masterly hand, Lenormant, Dusterwald, Unger, and many others have defended the verity of these statements of Daniel.  Darius the Mede” is as historical as Daniel himself, and the date of the prophecy is 538 B.C.


2.  As to the Place of the Prophecy.  That it was Babylon is clear from the tact that the exiles had not yet been released from captivity, that in this year, under Darius, Daniel was thrown into the lions’ den, and that the whole prayer of the prophet assumes his presence in the heathen capital on the banks of the Euphrates, pleading for the restoration.


3.  As to the Occasion of the Prophecy.  It was the fact (1) that Babylon had fallen, (2) that 68 of the 70 years of the captivity had expired, (3) that Daniel had betaken himself “by prayer and supplications with fasting and sackcloth” (9: 3) to plead with God, if so be that he might advance the hour of Israel’s deliverance, and not delay their release, and (4) that, although he “understood,” from Jeremiah and the sacred books, “the number of the years the Lord would accomplish,” even 70, “in the desolations of Jerusalem” (9: 2), yet, peradventure, the time might be conditional in God’s purpose, and the Lord, full of mercy, might shorten it just a little, and now, even now, end the captivity; all the more since Babylon had already fallen!  He knew well the enormity of Israel’s transgression, for he had the Pentateuch before him, and had read “the curse, and the oath written in the Law of Moses” (9: 11, 13).


He had the prophets before him, the whole extant canon of the old Testament, “Hassepharim,” the “Biblia,” or “Books,” and saw the mighty promises of mercy and love even to a sinful people not forsaken (9: 2).  He was himself a writer of Holy Scripture (7: 1; 8: 26; 10: 21; 12: 4, 9; Matt. 24: 15); a deep “Searcher” of the Word of God (1 Pet. 1: 10-12; 2 Pet. 1: 19-24); and if any had a claim on the ear of God, it was he.  Therefore did he plead.  In pressing his suit he confesses the crimes of the whole nation of Israel from the day of its birth, and pleads with his mouth in the dust - the crimes of “Judah,” “Jerusalem,” “all Israel near and far,” their “kings, princes, judges, and fathers,” the nation God bad delivered “out of the land of Egypt,” and implores “forgiveness and mercy” for the sanctuary, city and people, “Thy City Jerusalem,” “Thy Sanctuary,” “Thy People,” the whole organised nationality of Israel, as one body, now broken and scattered, and made a “reproach.”  And the burden of his prayer is this, that God will end Israel’s apostasy, i.e,, the great “transgression,” pardon their “sins,” and cover their “iniquity,” closing their “rebellion” against Him, and make haste to restore them, and rebuild Jerusalem, and “do,” and “defer not” for His own Name’s sake (9: 3, 19).  He pleads with a “covenant keeping God,” for those who had broken the covenant (9: 4, 11, 13).


4.  The Answer to the Prayer is the Prophecy itself.  It is in the last four verses of the chapter.  It came about 3 o’clock in the afternoon, or “about the time of the evening oblation” (9: 20, 2l.)  At such a time “Gabriel,” whom he “had seen in the vision” (in chapter 8.), “being caused to fly swiftly,” sped his way through the constellations, entered the earth’s atmosphere, and alighted near Daniel, with a message from the throne of God, and “touched” him.  He accosts him “0 Daniel, greatly beloved!” - a man filled with holy desires after the kingdom of God – “I am now come to give thee skill and understanding.” “The order came to me, at the beginning of thy supplication, and I am come to show thee, for thou art greatly beloved.  Therefore understand the matter,” i.e., the import of my appearing here, “and consider the vision” (9: 23).


24.  Seventy weeks (of years) are decreed upon thy people (the Jews) and upon thy holy city (Jerusalem) to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to cover over iniquity, and to cause everlasting righteousness to come, and to seal up (verify) the vision and prophecy, and to anoint a holy of holies.  25. Know, therefore, and discriminate; from the issuing of a word to restore, and to build Jerusalem, unto Prince Messiah, shall be Seven Sevens (of years), and Sixty and Two Sevens; she shall be restored and built as to street and rampart (street and wall), and in distress shall be the times.  26. And after those Sixty-two Sevens, Messiah shall be cut off, and there is not to Him (no guilt and no just judgment); and the city and the sanctuary shall th destroy, viz., the people of a prince, the one that is to come, and his end shall be in the overflowing; and unto that end shall be war, a decreed (measure or limit) of desolations.  27. And he (the prince to come) shall cause to prevail a covenant for the many, One Seven; and he shall cause sacrifice and offering to cease, Half of the Seven; and upon wing of abominations (he shall come) a desolator, even until the consummation and (until) that which is decreed (God’s wrath) is poured upon the one desolating.”


This marvellous prophecy and answer to the prayer covers every point made in the prayer itself, as to the Jew, Jerusalem, the Sanctuary, unveiling the whole future of Israel down to the destruction of the last Antichrist, The restoration of the Jews pursuant to “a word” or “command,” the Building of the Second Temple, and the City, the First Advent of Messiah, His Rejection by the Jewish Nation, and because of it, the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by Titus, and the Times of the Gentiles following, full of war and desolations; all these with the conversion of the Jews to Christ, a pardoned and righteous nation, apostate no more, but serving God in their own land, in a new sanctuary, all are here predicted in the clearest manner.  That all this mercy to Israel is grounded in the atoning work of the Messiah at His First Advent, and that in Him personally‑that “Holy Thing” born of the virgin, Himself a “Temple,” “Altar,” and “Sacrifice” anointed by the Spirit - and that in each [obedient] believer “a temple of the Holy Ghost,” and in the whole Church collectively, “a spiritual house,” the prophecy has been fulfilled, is beyond all question.  As little to be questioned is the fact that the six fold blessings promised to Israel, in verse 24, as the outcome of the seventy weeks with their intervals, are applied, in the New Testament, to the literal seed of Abraham according to the flesh - Israel in the Old Testament sense and eminently so in Paul’s epistles and in John’s Apocalypse.


There is, therefore, a glorious future for the ancient people of God.  That the Jews will be gathered together again to their own land, be born of the Spirit, converted to Christ, and established as a holy nation, at the Second Coming of Christ, and be as “life from the dead” to the nations, is as certain as the Word of God is true.  The wealth of the proof is amazing.  We read it in Isaiah 59: 21, 22; Romans 11: 25; Acts 3: 19-21 (R.V.); Isaiah 66: 5-16; 11: 4; 2 Thessalonians 2: 2, 8; Daniel 7: 21-27; 11: 40-45; 12: 1-3, 7; Micah 4: 8; Ezekiel 36: 24-28; 37: 1-28; Jeremiah 31: 33-40; Zephaniah 3: 8-20; Zechariah 12: 2-14; 13: 1; 14: 2-11; 16-21; Matthew 23: 39; 24: 25-28, 29-31; Revelations 7: 4-8; 14: 1-5; 20: 9; and scores of other texts too numerous to enumerate.  And “the strength of Israel will not lie.” (Deut. 32: 36-43; 33: 26-29.)  The Six fold blessing foretold in Daniel 9: 24, is simply the sum of the whole Messianic hope of Israel, to be fulfilled in them, literally in the Time of the End.  The Israel, Jacob, Judah, Jerusalem, Zion, of Old Testament prophecy, are not the “Church,” but the literal Israel, Jacob, Judah, Jerusalem, Zion, of Old Testament history and of the Four Gospels, the Acts, the Epistles, and the Apocalypse.


These prophecies were given to be understood; “Know, therefore, and understand.” (Dan. 9: 25.)  The angel declares that in the “Time of the Endthey shall be understood (12: 4).  From the bosom of the prophecy a sun-burst of surpassing brilliancy will break forth, as Israel’s deliverance draws nigh.  The book is not an undecipherable hieroglyph, a Sphinx whose riddle is insoluble, least of all an apocalypse whose apocalypse is un-apocalypsed, but an effulgent unveiling of the future, whose light is obscured only by our ignorance.


The “Seventy Sevens,” or “Weeks,” selected from the whole course of time, as weeks relating entirely to Jewish affairs, are Weeks of Years.  As seven days constitute a week, so seven years constitute the prophetic week.  All the weeks are of equal chronological measurement, each week consisting of seven literal years.  The sum is, therefore, 490 years.  These weeks are distributed into three divisions of 7, 62, 1, that is, into 49, 434, 7, years respectively.*


[* That the Jews will build their Temple again is certain.  Also revive their blood-shedding sacrifices.  (1) Isaiah predicts it (Isa. 66: 14).  (2) Gabriel says it will be the result of a covenant.  (3) Jesus Christ predicts the “abomination” (Matt. 24: 15), of which that in Daniel 8: 13, 14; 11: 31 was the type.  (4) Paul says the “Man of Sin” shall sit in the “Temple of God,” in the time just preceding the Second Advent, the rebuilt temple at Jerusalem (2 Thess. 2: 4).  (5) John exhibits the Antichrist’s Week, the 70th, and the building of the temple (Rev. 11: 1-3, 7), the very time given in Isa. 66: 1-5.  (6) Daniel foretells the period of the reconstruction of converted Israel’s worship after the revised time of Israel’s national repentance, faith, and Pentecostal baptism by the Spirit (Zech. 12: 10-14; 13: 1.)  The true title of Isaiah, chapter 66., and Revelations, chapter 11., is “Scenes in Jerusalem under the Antichrist.”  As to Ezekiel’s Temple and its sacrifices, see “The Thousand Years in Both Testaments” by Rev. Nathaniel West, pp. 424-434. (F. H. Revell, Chicago and New York.)]


The starting-point of the 70 weeks is the “going forth of a word to restore and build Jerusalem.” (Dan. 9: 25) The commission of Ezra, in 7th year of Artaxerxes, B.C. 458, was followed by Nehemiah’s commission in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes (Neh. 2.). The first 69 weeks of the 70 weeks reach from the going forth of a word to restore and build Jerusalem to the crucifixion of Christ.




The 70th week is the last “7 years,” or “One week,” in Daniel 9: 2 7, the Antichrist’s week, the week of the “Little Horn” in chapter 7., the week of “the prince that shall come on wing of abomination” (9: 27), invading the Holy Land, and swooping like a vulture on its prey.  His last campaign is given in Daniel 11: 40-45, and elaborated in Zechariah 12: 2-8; 14: 1-4, 12-15, and in Joel 3: 9-17.  The week is opened by the advent of the Antichrist and “covenant” with the Jewish masses (Dan. 9: 27), a treaty whereby the power holding Palestine will concede a peaceful modus vivendi with the Jews, tolerating their ancient worship, and obtaining from their magnates financial help. as in the days of Antiochus.  The “covenant” with the Jewish masses is broken in the middle of the week, the revived “oblation and sacrifice” being caused to cease (Daniel 9: 27).


This violation is, doubtless, due to some signal event in the history of the Jews, at that time, which leads the Antichrist to vent his rage against all Jews believing or unbelieving, and all [remaining] Christians.  The second “Half” of the week is the “Great Tribulation,” when the Desolator, on wing of abomination, shall devastate everything before him, occupy Jerusalem, sit in the temple, then in process of completion (Rev. 9: 1, Isa. 66: 1-6), claiming divine honours for himself (2 Thess. 2: 4), persecuting “the people of the saints of the Most High” and all God’s saints everywhere (7: 25; 12: 7; Matthew 24: 15-28; Revelations 9: 2; 12: 6, 14, 17; 13).


It is the final testing for both Jews and Gentiles who believe in Christ, the “Great Tribulation” spoken of in Jeremiah 30: 7, as that of “Jacob’s trouble,” in Matthew 24: 15-28, as that of “Christ’s Elect,” in Revelations 7: 14, as that out of which the election of Israel (7: 4-8), and the election of the, Gentiles (7: 9), shall come; and in Daniel 12: 1, as that which is followed by Israel’s deliverance and the resurrection of the holy dead.  The close of the last 1,260 days of this week is the close of the “time, times, and dividing of a time,” i.e., three and a half years, in Daniel 7: 25; 12: 7, which is signalised by the overthrow of the Antichrist at the Second Coming of the Son of Man.  The same scene of the Lord’s intervention is pictured in Joel. 3: 16, 17; Isaiah 59: 19-21; 63: 1-6; 66: 14-16; Zephaniah 3: 14-20; Zechariah 14: 1-5.


With these mighty events the “70th week” terminates viz., with New-born Israel, the Second Advent of Christ in power and great glory, the Destruction of the Antichrist, the downfall of the Colossal Image, and the setting up of the [millennial] kingdom of Christ in victory over all the earth.  Then are fulfilled to Israel the six-fold blessings predicted in chapter 9: 24 - viz., the termination of Israel’s apostasy, the pardon of Israel’s sins, the reconciliation of Israel to God, the introduction of enduring righteousness, the verification of all prophecy, and the consecration of a new Holy of Holies.  This is the glorious goal at the “End” of Israel’s long and painful way.


Here in the most solemn manner Gabriel informs the prophet that the history of God’s people courses its way through different periods of time, all determined by the immutable measurements of God; that as the road-surveyor determines his track with culvert, tunnel, curve and grade, or a landscape painter sketches his plan on the canvas, draws its lines, fixes its measurements, projects the long perspective, the gloomed defiles and shining end, so God has constructed here the way for Israel’s feet to walk and rest.  For wisest reasons, one point, alone, is undefined, impossible by us to be determined, until we come to it, the point when the “what withholdeth” is “taken out of the way,” and the seventieth week begins.  (2 Thess. 2: 6, 7)


Still, all is “Nihtak,” decreed, determined, decided of God, the seventy weeks, the 7, 62, and 1, the 2,300 evening-mornings, the 1,260 days, and, as we shall see, the 1,290 and 1,335 days (12: 11, 12), all measured by Palmoni, the Wonderful Numberer, that Certain Holy One, whose voice came from between the banks of the Ulai (7: 13).  To “know” and “understand” the true interpretation of the seventy weeks is the first necessity of the student of Old and New Testament prophecy.


The inverted Hebrew text and construction of 9: 26, viz., “and the people of a prince, the one that is to come, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary,” is intended to connect as closely as possible the future “prince” with the subject of the verb “confirm” in the next verse, and to show that neither Antiochus, Titus, nor Christ can be that prince, finding “his end” in the military overflowing.  The 70th week is the last Antichrist’s week,* both by prophecy itself and our Lord’s own teaching.  The use of the definite article “the” in the phrase “the one that is to come,” i.e., after the destruction of the city of Jerusalem by the Roman people, points back to, the “Little Horn,” in Daniel 7., as to a character already well-known to Daniel, and which was the object of his interest in a previous vision.  The translation “his end,” instead of “the end thereof,” and “unto the end, war,” instead of “unto the end of the war,” in Daniel 9: 26, rest upon an absolutely correct text, and are now conceded by all exegetes.


[* “After the most thorough investigation, all modern scholars are agreed that the suffix ‘o’ in the Hebrew  qetstso,’ Daniel 9: 26, is masculine and refers to the ‘prince that shall come,’ and who is the subject of the verb ‘confirm,’ and that his end’ is the correct rendering.”  It refers neither to Antiochus, Christ, or Titus.” Fraidi, Die Exegese der siebzig Woehen, p. 68. “The suffix and its noun can only be rendered ‘his end,’ viz., that of the hostile prince, and at Jerusalem.  The prophecy here does not refer to Antiochus, nor his times, but to the times immediately before the Second Advent.” Wolf, Die siebzig Wochen, P. 50.  The suffix refers directly to its nearest antecedent in gender and number, viz., the prince to come.  It does not refer to the people of the prince, nor to the city, or the sanctuary, nor to Antiochus, Christ, or Titus, but to the last Antichrist.” Klieforth, Das Buch Daniels, p. 367.  Grandly, Prof. Tiefenthal, of the College of St. Anselm, Rome, says, “Nowhere, in the New Testament, does Christ confirm a covenant only for a week.  The covenant here is that of the Antichrist with the Jews.  It is the common opinion that in Matthew 24 : 15, and parallels, the Lord refers the ‘abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the prophet’ solely to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.  On the contrary, Daniel speaks of the ‘abomination’ in Daniel 11: 31, and in 12: 11, the first of these texts containing the type of the second, the time of the second that immediately before the Advent.  The suffix and noun are correctly rendered ‘his end,’ viz., that of the prince that shall come.” Daniel Explicatus, p. 304-5.]


The sudden spring from Jerusalem’s destruction to the time of the last Antichrist, by means of the inverted Hebrew construction in Daniel 9: 26, is in perfect harmony with the manner of Daniel’s predictions.  The English rendering, “and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate” (9: 27), must at once be discarded and the correct rendering, “and upon wing of abominations he shall come, a Desolator,” put in its place.  The idea that by the word “wing,” (kenaph) is meant the “top of the altar,” or “top or extremity of the Temple,” rests upon the false Septuagint rendering of the Hebrew word (kenaph) by the word “temple” (heiron) and must be rejected.  What the Hebrew texts foretells is that “the prince to come” shall invade the Holy Land, coming on the “wings” of his army like a vulture swooping down on its prey, himself, his army and its military ensigns an “abomination (11: 40-45).  These corrections are vital to the understanding of the text.


Nearly all the early Church fathers saw the gap between the 69th and 70th Weeks.  Of this the vast majority were certain, viz., that the 70th Week is the last Antichrist’s week, at the “End” of Gentile times, and that the starting-point of the 70 Weeks is either the “first Darius the Mede,” or “first Cyrus as sole king of Babylon.” So Justin, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Eusebius in one of his calculations, Origen, Hippolytus, Hilary, later on Polychronius, and Bruno of Asti; still later, ‑ Calvin, Ecolampadius, Bullinger, L’Empereur, Cocceius, Bervaldus, Dathe, Blayney, Uri; later still, Jungman, Koeh, J. D. Michaelis, Pringle, Hauenkamp, Velthusen; yet later, Kliefoth, Keil, Koeh, Christiani, Fraidi, D’Envieu, Tiefenthal, Dornstetter, Dusterwald, Briggs, and many others.  In the fourth century the Artaxerxes date, advocated previously by Africanus, was generally, held - viz., twentieth year of Artaxerxes, as the beginning`of the 70 Weeks.


Only the knowledge of Daniel’s predictions by the Magi, at the head of whose order Daniel stood for 70 years, and the currency of Balaam’s prophecy among the Gentiles, concerning the “Star out of Jacob,” brought the “Wise Men” from Babylon and Persia, with the question on their lips, “Where is He that is born King of the Jews, for we in the East have seen His star and are come to worship Him?” (Matt. 2: 2.)  They reckoned well!


When the Antichrist and the Jews are in “covenant,” at the beginning of the 70th week, and clearer still, when the breach occurs between them at the “middle of the week,” then the determination of the year of Christ’s Advent in power and great glory, perhaps the month, will be certain to all believers.  To watch always and wait patiently is the believer’s privilege.  Prophetic nearness is one thing, chronological nearness another, and yet faith and hope overleap all intervening events.  The relatively brief remainder of the interval, and the Antichrist, are what is immediately before us, and with all sobriety we can say that it is this that lends an interest, so solemn and absorbing, to the attitude of the nations, the extension of missions, the Jewish movements, the Eastern Question, the crimes of Christendom, and the current events in both hemispheres of the world.*


[* NOTE BY EDITOR OF LONDON EDITION‑ “There is every reason to believe that these Seventy Weeks will have a literal day fulfilment as Seventy Weeks of days as well as the year-day fulfilment as Seventy Weeks of years.  Tyso, an able Hebrew scholar, and others, mention this in their books on Daniel.  Thus, from a future ‘going forth of a command to restore and build Jerusalem,’ there will he 69 weeks of days, i.e., 483 days or 16 months all but 3 days, unto the Second Advent of Messiah the Prince, just as there were 69 weeks of years, i.e., 483 years from the past ancient ‘going forth of a command to rebuild Jerusalem’ unto the First Advent of Messiah the Prince.  Hebraists have pointed out that the Hebrew word for weeks in Daniel 10: 2, where Daniel is stated to have fasted for three weeks, is the same word as is here used for the Seventy Weeks in Daniel 9., and therefore signifies primarily weeks of days.  Then again as the 2,300 years (Daniel 8: 14), and 69 weeks of are commenced simultaneously, so the future 2,300 days and 69 weeks of days shall commence simultaneously, viz., with a renewal of the sacrifices and command to rebuild Jerusalem at the distance of 2, 345 days before the final Covenant Week of 7 days which will terminate this Age.”]



*       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER SEVEN [Pages 72-86]




(Daniel, Chapters 10-13 – One Prophecy – The Theme, the “Warfare Great” – The Eastern Question – Nature of the Revelation – Date of the Prophecy – Place and Time of the Vision – Occasion of the Vision – The Vision Itself – The Christophany – The Persons in the Scene – The Effect of the Vision – Prostration of the Prophet, and Flight of his Companions – The Recovery of the Prophet – The Comfort – Israel under the guardian Care of Angels – Daniel’s Book, a “Scripture of Truth” – Warning against the False Criticism of this Book.)





Here we have a true Apocalypse.  The Glorious One who sways over the Hiddekel is the ‘Alpha and Omega,’ who appeared to John upon tile island of Patmos in the Aegean not far from Ephesus, and is the ‘Son of Man’ whom Daniel had already seen in the vision of Daniel 7 - there, in a night dream; here, in open day - there, in one form; here, in another.  He is the same whose back part Moses saw from the cleft of Horeb, and Isaiah saw high and lifted up, and Ezekiel saw above the firmament, and whose fear fell upon them.  Unable to endure the sight or the voice, Gabriel interposes to strengthen and compose the shattered frame and mind of the prophet Daniel, and restore him to his strength.”


                                                                                           - Fehrmann.





1. In the third year of Cyrus king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar; and the thing was true, but the time appointed was long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision.  2. In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks.  3. I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.  4. And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which is Hiddekel; 5. Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz: 6. His body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.  7. And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves.  8. Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength, 9. Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground.  10. And, behold, a hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands.  11. And he said unto me, 0 Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee am I now sent.  And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling.  12. Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words.  13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.  14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet, the vision is for many days.  15. And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb.  16. And, behold, one like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips: then I opened my mouth, and spake, and said unto him that stood before me, 0 my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon me, and I have retained no strength.  17. For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.  18. Then there came again and touched me one like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me.  19. And said, 0 man greatly beloved, fear not: peace be unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.  20. Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee! and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.  21. But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.”


These three chapters form one continuous prophecy, the longest in the book of Daniel.  The time covered by them is from the date of this vision B.C. 534 to Christ’s Second Advent, i.e., the whole time of the Silver Breast, Brazen Loins, and Iron Legs of the Colossus in Daniel 2., and of the Bear, the Leopard, the Ten-Horned Beast in Daniel 7., therefore including the time of the Ram and the Rough Goat and its Four Horns and Little Horn in Daniel 8.; also the Little Horn of the Ten-Horned Beast.  The continuous prophecy of these three chapters ends with the final deliverance of the Jews, the resurrection of the holy dead, and the blessed time in the victorious kingdom of God on earth.


Daniel’s chapter 10., which gives us the Christophany and a wider glimpse than before into the unseen world, is the Prologue, or introduction to 11. and 12., which contain the proper “Revelation” made to the prophet concerning the “Time of the End,” including the near and far horizons of the third and fourth empires.  The Epilogue is 12: 5-13, the theme of the prophecy is the “WARFARE GREAT,” the Eastern Question and its solution.  Each of the chapters, 10., 11., 12., forms a general separate section of the whole prediction, the first verse of 11. properly belonging to the close of 10.  All the way from Daniel 10: 4 to 12: 13, we stand on the banks of the Hiddekel, see the vision, watch the actions of the prophet, hear the Lord, the Angels, and Daniel talk, and listen to the revelation given.


1. As to the NATURE OF THE REVELATION ITSELF, the prophet says, a “Thing,” literally a “Word,” was revealed to him by means of a “Vision,” and that the word was true, and related to great and long-continued military struggles.  The translation of the clause in King James’ Version, “and the time appointed was long,” is simply a defective paraphrase of the Hebrew text.  The correct rendering is, “and Truth is the Word, even Warfare Great,” i.e., the Revelation he records is that of Israel’s long struggle with the World-Power in its successive empires and kingdoms, from the third year of Cyrus, B.C. 534, down to the final deliverance of the Jews from Gentile hands, and the consummation of the kingdom of Christ at His Second Coming.  In a somewhat similar manner Virgil and Homer began their great epics with “Arms and the Man I sing,” and Thiers and Macaulay their histories with “I propose to write” so and so. if, imitating the title to John’s Apocalypse, we might affix one to this section of Daniel’s Book, it would be this: “The Revelation of the Angel of Jehovah which God gave to Him to show unto His servants the things which must come to pass in the latter days, concerning the destiny of Israel and the World-Powers; and He told this word by His angel Gabriel, whom He sent to His servant Daniel, commanding him to shut up and seal the book unto the Time of the End.  Blessed is he who waits and comes to the end of the days.”


2. THE DATE OF THIS PROPHECY was B.C. 534.  According to Babylonian reckoning, the “first year of Cyrus” was that of the overthrow of Babylon, B.C. 538.  For this reason, it is said that Daniel “continued to live” in his official activity under the king of Babylon, i.e., under all the Chaldean kings, “to the first year of Cyrus,” when their empire expired. (Dan. 1: 21.)  He also “prospered in the reign of Darius,” the Mede (Dan. 6: 28), who “received” the kingdom or rule, over Babylon from Cyrus himself, verse 31 - Darius being made king over the Chaldeans at that time, B.C. 538.  Upon the death of Darius, B.C. 536, Cyrus assumed the sole reign over Babylon, issuing his edict for the emancipation of the Jews.  According to Jewish reckoning, as seen in 2 Chronicles, 36: 22; Ezra 1: 1, “the first year of Cyrus” was regarded as the first of his sole reign, the year of Jewish liberation.  The “third year of Cyprus,” therefore, according to Dan. 10: 1, was B.C. 534, or the fourth year after Babylon’s fall, or two years after the Edict of Cyrus.  Cyrus is called the “King of Persia” first, because he was “King of Persia” first of all, and as such conquered both Media and Babylon; and, second, because in 536 Darius, the Mede, having passed away, the Persian dynasty, the higher of the two horns of the Medo-Persian empire, was now in the ascendant. (Dan. 8: 3-20.)  If as the best tradition reports, Daniel was seventeen years old when carried captive, B.C. 606, his age was eighty-nine when this last revelation was made, B.C. 534.


3. THE PLACE AND TIME OF THE VISION was by the banks of the river Tigris, whose Accadian name was “Iddiklat,” called biblically “Hiddekel,” the third of the four great rivers into which the river of Eden parted, “that which goeth toward the east of Assyria.” (Gen. 2: 14.)  Daniel’s definite statement, “I was by the side of the great river Hiddekel,” taken in connection with his description of the conduct of his companions, “the men that were with me,” makes it certain that the prophet was not visionally transported there, but was bodily present. (Dan. 10: 4, 7.)  The Euphrates and Tigris, Nineveh and Babylon, were now the possessions of Cyrus, and Daniel’s official duties doubtless required his presence in this part of the augmented empire.  The special time of the vision is given to the “four and twentieth day of the first month,” i.e., the 24th Abib, called Nisan by the post-exilic Jews, our March-April, the Passover month whose feast commemorates Israel’s deliverance out of Egypt.  Yet, further, the vision was given at the close of “three full weeks” of fasting, the fast commencing on the 3rd and ending on the 24th of Nisan.  Some deep significance lies here, in the association of this vision of Israel’s deliverance from their last oppressor, with the Passover month that commemorates their deliverance from their first oppressor, the Egyptian.  Already, one seems to hear the “Song of Moses and the Lamb” united.  All the more impressive is this association since in 12: 5, in the Hebrew text, “the River” is called by the name of the Nile - “Yeor” - one of those quick-glinting intimations we often meet in prophecy when least suspecting it, to tell us that, hereafter, in the End-Time it will be with Israel “as it was in the day that he came up out of Egypt.” (Isaiah 11: 16; Rev. 15: 2-4.)  The Holy Spirit’s prophetic glances, fore and aft, are wonderful


[* As the waters were divided, so will it be again. (Isa., 11: 85; Rev. 16: 12.)  As the walls of Jericho fell, so shall it be again. (Isa. 2: 15; Rev. 15: 19.)  As the mountains were rent and skipped so shall it be again. (Ps. 114: 4, 10; Rev. 16: 19.)  As hailstones fell at Bethoron, so, with mightier force shall it be again. (Rev. 16: 21.) As the transjordanic regions, Ammon, Moab, Edom, were held by Israel so shall it be again. (Isa. 11: 14; Dan. 11: 40, 45.)  As plagues of sores and darkness and of water turned to blood marked the coming out of Egypt, so shall Israel’s final deliverance be marked. (Rev. 16: 2, 3, 10.)  As the dividing of the sea for Israel’s escape. so for the same purpose the Mount of Olives shall be divided; and as Sun and Moon stood still during Joshua’s long day, so Zechariah’s nocturnal day and solar night, a day .unique, “not day nor night,” points to yet corresponding phenomena.  “It shall be as it was, “in multiplied ways.”  (Zech. 14: 4, 6. 7.)]


4. THE OCCASION OF THE VISION was the sad intelligence received concerning the state of affairs at Jerusalem.  Babylon indeed had fallen, and 45,000 exiles had returned to Jerusalem pursuant to the order of Cyrus, to build the temple and the city.  The “foundations” had indeed been laid, but the old men had “wept with a loud voice” as they contrasted the present poverty of Structure with the grandeur of the ancient house. (Ezra 3: 11, 12.)  Worse than all, the temple-work had been suspended, through the machinations and accusations of Samaritans against the Jews, and Persian sympathy had been withdrawn. (Ezra 4: 4-16, 23, 24.) Moreover, a scheme was contrived to build a counter temple on Gerizzim, in Samaria.  Dejected in sorrow, the prophet gives himself to “mourning, fasting and prayer for three full weeks,” even in joyous Passover-time, during which he “ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine into his mouth, nor did he anoint himself” (10: 3).  At the close of this period, the venerable saint, burdened with the weight of years, and enfeebled by this long fast, received the Vision and the Revelation on the 24th Nisan, B.C. 534.


5. THE VISION ITSELF is a Christophany, or appearing of the Angel of Jehovah in human form.  The prophet lifts his eyes and sees in open day a “Certain Man” of supernatural presence hovering over the waters of the Hiddekel, a man wearing not the “Talar,” but the shining byssus garment of a Jewish High-Priest, his loins cinctured with “gold of Uphaz,” his body in colour like a “Tarshish,” or brilliant Chrysolite. such as sparkled in the pectoral of Aaron, his face “flashing like the lightning,” his eyes like “torches blazing,” his arms and feet like “polished brass,” and his voice as “the voice of a multitude” (Dan. 10: 5, 6); or, as the word imports, like surges breaking on the shore, or the noise of shouting armies in the distance, or as of deep, low, bursting thunder.  Omnipotence and sublimity are here.  It is a vision of Jesus Christ before His incarnation, yet symbolised in the dignity of His royal, priestly and prophetic offices, in the terror of His judicial majesty, the forecast splendour of His exalted humanity, and the glory of His deity; a “Man,” both Man and God, incomparable in the mystery of His person and his natures  - a face above the brightness of the sun, a voice vocal as the thunder.  His transparent body means His sanctity and glory.  His white robe means that He is a priest, His golden girdle that He is a King, His uttering voice that He is a prophet.  His eyes like searching fire mean omniscience.  His arms and feet, like burning brass, mean judgment for His enemies.  His face effulgent means that God is there!  Elsewhere in the Book of Daniel this same glorious person, who is the central figure of it all, is presented as the “Stone” detached from the mountain (Dan. 2: 34, 45); “One like a Son of God” (3: 25); a “Watcher and Holy One,” who cares for Israel (4: 13); “One like a Son of Man,” coming in the clouds  (2: 13); a “Certain Holy One, Palmon Wonderful Numberer,” whose voice Daniel heard coming from between the banks of the Ulai (8: 15, 16); “Messiah” born and crucified (9: 26); and now the “Linen-Clothed Man” hovering sublime above the Hiddekel.


In all these forms and relations He appears as the Crusher of the Colossal Image of earthly politics and power, the companion of His suffering saints in the furnace and the den, the Judge of all the earth, the Measurer of the Ages and the Ends, the Seasons and the Times, the Revealer of the truth and Unveiler of Israel’s pathway and goal, the atoning Redeemer of His people, the Destroyer of the Antichrist, the Deliverer of the Jews, the immortal Monarch of the Fifth Empire, and Bringer of the kingdom of God to victory over all the earth.  Here, in the present vision (Dan. 10: 5, 6), He appears in His greatest splendour, and is that Glorious One John saw “in the isle that is called Patmos” (A.D. 96), six hundred and thirty years later; the Walker in the midst of the golden candlesticks, the Lamb on the Throne, the many crowned warrior on the white horse, and, as in Moses and John, so here, the Oath-Swearing Angel with uplifted hand to heaven. (Dent. 32: 40; Rev. 10: 5, 6; Dan. 12: 7.)  He is the “Angel of the Covenant,” Israel’s “Saviour” and “Hope in time of trouble.”  He ate in Abraham’s tent, saved Isaac from the altar, was the Mystic Ladder Jacob saw.  He spoke to Moses at the Bush, and from the Pillar of Cloud by day and Fire by night.  Ezekiel, Daniel’s contemporary, calls Him the “Glory of the Lord” (Ezek. 1: 26-28), and saw Him lingering, then departing from Jerusalem, yet returning to the eastern gate.  Zechariah, alluding to the very time the present vision closes, says of Him, “The Lord my God shall come, all the holy ones with Thee! and his feet shall stand, in that day, on the Mount of Olives.” (Zech. 14: 1-5.)


6. THE PERSONS IN THE SCENE are (1) the Linen-Clothed Man, (2) Daniel and his companions, (3) Gabriel, (4) Michael, and (5) “Two Others,” referred to in chapter 12: 5, 6.  Whether the companions of Daniel were Zechariah, Haggai and Malachi, or Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, or some servants of the prophet, is indeterminable.  Conjectural is every view as to who the “Two Others” are.  Michael is expressly named. (10: 13, 21.)  Gabriel is not named, but the characteristic mode of addressing the prophet as a “man greatly beloved,” and of “touching” him to strengthen him, and the fact that he who addresses and touches is the revealing angel, leaves no doubt that the “hand” in contact with the prostrate prophet (10: 10, 16, 18) is not that of the Linen-Clothed Man (10: 5, 6), but is the “hand” of Gabriel.  Compare chapter 10: 21-23, with 8: 15, 16.  There is nothing in the expression, “one like the similitude of the sons of Adam touched my lips” (10: 16), to indicate otherwise.  The expression is not the same as that in chapter 7: 13, “One like the Son of Man,” coming in the clouds of heaven.  The action and speech of the angel in chapters 7. and 9., and here in chapter 10., in connection with all these prophecies, prove that Gabriel is the Toucher, the Speaker, and the Revealing Angel, all the way from Daniel 10: 10 to 12: 4, and - save chapter 12: 7, where the Linen-Clothed Man answers a question - is the Speaker and Revealer of the whole prophecy.  The prophet does not say that the Linen-Clothed Man laid “His hand” upon him, as John says of Christ in Revelations 1: 17, but simply “a hand” touched me (Dan. 10: 10), viz., the hand of Gabriel.


7. THE EFFECT OF THE VISION on the Prophet and his Companions and the Circumstances of his Recovery.  (1) On his companions.  Like those of Saul, when the Lord appeared to him on the way to Damascus, they “saw not the vision of the man.”  They heard “a voice,” but not articulate.  To both, a flash and a sound were the whole phenomena.  To those who have no eyes to see, the glory of God is but as natural lightning.  To those who have no ears to hear, the voice of Christ is only as rolling thunder.  Unbelieving science neither sees nor hears anything supernatural.  Unlike Saul’s companions, who “fell to the ground,” – Daniel’s ran away “quaking,” and “fled affrighted to hide themselves.” (Dan 10: 7; Acts 9: 7; 22: 9; 36: 14.) (2) On the prophet himself, left “alone,” the effect was utter physical and mental prostration.  The supernatural shock suspended all normal functional activities of mind and body, destroying not only the power of locomotion, but of erect position, producing nervous and muscular paralysis and semi-consciousness and threatening dissolution.  At the age of eighty-nine years, and after three weeks’ fast, it seemed to be apparent, death.  So John, of nearly the same age, when narrating the effect of the Christophany in Patmos, says, “When I saw Him I fell at His feet as dead!” (Rev. 1: 17.)  Into the mystery of the necessity of such phenomena, when protracted, minute, and mighty revelations are about to be given, we may not pry.  Doubtless the purpose was to strip the prophet of all human strength and cause him, in the strength of God alone, to receive and record the great communication.


He describes his condition.  Pathetically he narrates that his “strength” had departed, his “comeliness” been turned to “corruption,” and that, as soon as he heard the “voice of the words” of the Linen-Clothed Man he was thrown in a “deep sleep,” prostrate, his “face toward the ground” (10: 8, 9).  Haggard, withered, disfigured, the freshness of his countenance gone, stupefied, overpowered by the Divine presence, he fell comatose and heavy to the earth.  The awful splendour and voice of Jehovah had shattered him.  Once before, under a vision less powerful, he says he was “astounded,” “fainted,” and was “sick for many days.” (Dan. 8: 27.)  Nevertheless, the power that prostrated him re-invigorated and recovered him.  The mysterious Form that hovered over the Hiddekel withheld Himself now from the eyes and ears of the prophet unable to endure more, and sent an angel to succour and support him.  Thrice the prophet is “touched” and addressed by Gabriel 10: 10-20.  At the first touch, 10: 10, he is raised from the ground, resting on his “knees” and the “palms of his hands.”  Like a quadruped, he stands on all fours.  His crouching position is that of one endeavouring to rise but too feeble to succeed.  The angel comforts and instructs him.  O Daniel, man greatly beloved!” tells him he has a message for him, desires him to understand it and bids him “stand upright.”


Weak, yet obedient, the prophet rises.  When he had spoken this word to me, I stood, trembling” (10: 11.). The angel assures him that, from the first day he had “set his heart to understand, and chastened himself before God,” his prayer had been heard, and that now, in answer to prayer for his sake, he, Gabriel, had come to him (10: 12.).  Gabriel explains the delay and gives the prophet a glimpse into the conflicts of the unseen world, showing what interests the angels, good and evil, take in the affairs of human governments.  He says that for twenty-one days following the beginning of Daniel’s prayer, he had stood at his post counteracting the influence of the evil angel - prince of Persia, who was responsible for all the mischief and machinations at Jerusalem, and for the cunning schemes to change the Persian policy adversely to the Jews; that Michael, the guardian prince of Israel and commander of the heavenly hosts, had come to his help; that both had won a victory over the evil influence at the Persian court and that thus relieved from his watch he, Gabriel, had hastened as rapidly as possible to cause the prophet to understand not only this but future things (10: 13, 14.). Herein the prophet is assured, first of all, that, in spite of all opposition, the Temple should be built, although in troublous times, and so far, the prophecy in Daniel 9: 25 be fulfilled; that the lost edict of Cyrus would yet he discovered and re-enforced by a new decree of Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and the court‑demon, whether at Babylon, Shushan, or Achmetha, be foiled. (Ezra 5: 13, 17; 6: 1-7, 8-12, 15-22.)  Here was comfort, indeed. But, as the prophecy in both chapters 8. and 9. looked into future times beyond the Persian rule, even into Greek and Roman times, and on to the end of Israel’s long pathway, even to the 70th week in chapter 9., so had he hurried specially to tell the prophet what should “befall his people in the latter days” (10: 14).  He uses an expression – “acharith hayyamim,” the afterness of the days”- well known to Daniel, a technical expression including all near and far horizons but eminently the remote.  (Dan. 8: 17, 19, 23, 2: 28.)  He tells him, in sum, that the message he brings in no less than a prophecy in detail of “WARFARE GREAT” (10: 1), covering all Persian, Greek and Roman times, reaching to the last crisis and the last deliverance.


This solemn word is too much for the trembling prophet to endure.  If indeed he had been comforted and strengthened somewhat by the angel’s word and touch, yet deeply affected by what he now heard, he seems to relapse.  The thought of further tribulation for his people overcomes him.  He becomes dejected again and “dumb.”  When he (the angel) had spoken such words to me, I set my face to the ground, and I became dumb” (10: 15.).  A second time the angel commiserates his frailty and touches his “lips,” signifying that he wishes him to speak.  The prophet opens his mouth and pleads in plaintive tones his incapacity, “Oh, my Lord, by reason of the vision my pains came upon me, and I retained no strength.  For how can the servant of this my Lord talk with this my Lord, for, as for me, no strength has remained in me, no breath left in me” (10: 16, 17). Stricken prophet!  Old man, weak from years and from fasting, overpowered by the sight above the Hiddekel, and now weighted afresh with the burden of Israel’s future woes, how could he “talk”?  A bruised reed and smoking flax, trembling, flickering, bent, breathless and powerless, how demean himself otherwise than in silence, as befits the sorrowing, or how charm into cheerfulness the countenance made sad, or into utterance the chords made mute, by the vision and the voice?  I was dumb, I opened not my mouth, because thou didst it!”


A third time the angel touches him and addresses him.  0 man, greatly beloved!  Courage!  Peace be unto thee! Be strong, yea, be strong!”  Behold how angels salute the suffering saints of God!‑Ish hemdoth! Tiryeh lo! Shalom leka! Hazak ve-hazak!” - words powerful enough to comfort the saddest, encourage the faintest and doubly confirm and strengthen the weakest.  Almighty energy revived his almost exanimated frame, sent new pulses through his blood and stiffened into strength his palsied limbs.  The colour returns to his face.  Be strong, yea, be strong!”  Courageously he “talks.”  He is ready now to receive the Revelation of the “Tsaba Gadol.” - theWarfare Great.”  Let my Lord speak, for thou hast strengthened me” (10: 19).  And yet the angel would be certain that the mind of Daniel is clear and his memory still faithful to its functions.  Knowest thou wherefore I am come to thee?” (10: 20).  Rememberest thou the words I spake before the second touch? my mission? the object of my coming? the victory won over the evil angel-prince of Persia? (10: 14).  Satisfied that Daniel’s mind is clear, the angel resumes his oxordium, broken off by Daniel’s weakness, and meant as a preliminary word to his revelation of the “Warfare Great.”  Doing so, he continues to comfort and strengthen the prophet by making known two things, viz:


(1) That, as in the past, so in the future, Daniel’s people are under the special guardianship of the angels of God.  In the midst of their trials, angelic power shall defend the faithful.  For this reason, Gabriel informs him that he must “return” to the Persian court to maintain the advantage already gained (10: 13), and continue to “fight with the angel-prince of Persia” (10: 20), during the whole period of the Persian supremacy, and so incline the kings of Persia to favour Israel - a fact made evident in all the Persian history, and particularly so in the times of Esther.  He adds, however, that there will be a time when, after he is gone away, and is at his post of watchfulness, another enemy, the evil “angel-prince of Grecia shall come” (10: 20.)  The Persian supremacy will pass away, the Jews shall fall under Greek dominion and again experience tribulation.  Nevertheless, the angel will stay long enough to “show” i.e., explain, to the prophet “what is noted in the Scripture of Truth” concerning not only the times of Persia and Greece, but the end of Roman times also, even the end of the “Warfare Great.”  He further adds that, although the sufferings of the Jews will be severe, yet the outcome will be victory for the people of God.  All the more evident in this since but twenty-one days ago, he, Gabriel, stood up against the evil angel-prince of Persia, and foiled the intrigues at the Persian court (10: 13); Michael, his only help, and “none but Michael,” the archangel and guardian prince of Israel, was needed then or would be needed hereafter, to “exert himself against these,” i.e., the powers of Persia and Greece, or against the “Powers” in the closing struggle of the “Warfare Great” (10: 21).  No human allies will be needed even in Israel’s last extremity.


Still further, the angel reminds the prophet that, in a great crisis only four years ago, he, Gabriel, Michael assisting (10: 13), “stood up in the first year of Darius, the Mode, to strengthen and confirm” that weak-minded vacillating monarch (Dan. 6: 4-27), against the machinations of the satraps, stopped the mouths of the lions in the den where Daniel was thrown, delivered Daniel and caused his promotion under the Persian empire; in fact, that two angels of God, Gabriel and Michael, had been all-sufficient to sway the minds of both Cyrus and Darius to execute God’s judgment on Babylon, and defend triumphantly the interests of Israel.  The inference is irresistible that, in coming days under the “Great Tribulation” that will close the Gentile times (13: 1; Rev. 12: 7; Zech. 12: 8), Israel will not be overwhelmed by the “Powers,” nor forsaken by a covenant-keeping God. Jacob’s hope will not be in human allies, always a curse to him, but in the “Lord of Hosts” alone.  Hereby he recalls to the prophet the memories of the Hebrew history.  What allies, in any crisis, ever saved Israel from their enemies?  What victories did Israel ever win by foreign aid - what battle ever lost when Gabriel and Michael “stood up” in Israel’s behalf?  One angel, alone, smote the firstborn of Egypt; another laid low in a single night the entire army of Sennacherib.  Was it not enough that the “Captain of the Lord’s Host” appeared to Joshua?  What allies had the Judges?  The murmurs of the Red Sea, the tumbling walls of Jericho, the sun standing still over Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon - can these be forgotten?  The glittering hosts of Mahanain, whose quivers are filled with lightnings, and whose step is in the thunderstorm, are more than a match for all the helmeted battalions of all the “Powers.”  Courage, Daniel. Be strong, yea, be strong!”  No fear for the future!  Of Israel it is said, “The Eternal God is thy Refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms, and He shall thrust out the enemy before thee” - Greek, Cossack, Turk or Persian – “and shall say, Destroy them!  Happy art thou, 0 Israel, 0 people saved of the Lord, who is the Shield of thy help and the Sword of thine excellency!” (Deut. 33: 26-29.) Thus in “words” and in substance, not less than by “touches,” does the angel revive the memories of the past, kindle the hopes of the future, and reinvigorate and comfort the mind of the prophet.


(2) The final comfort given is the solemn sanction of the angel, soul-assuring and inviolable, to all the revelations Daniel has received, and to the “Book” in which, from the first, he had recorded them.  He calls Daniel’s book the Kilab Emeth” or “Writing of Truth,” i.e., True Scripture,” and not fiction (10: 21), and in 12: 4, calls it “Hassepher,” “The Book.”  This “Writing of Truth” is not any unwritten book of God’s decrees, nor of His providence, nor is it the “book of life,” nor of “God's remembrance,” nor any archives of angels in heaven, but is the visible and manual “Scripture” of the revelations given and recorded by Daniel in human alphabetic characters, Hebrew and Aramaean.  It was something in Daniel’s possession - a “Sepher,” or “Book” which, when completed, was to be placed among the “Sepharim” or canonical “Books” of the Jewish people, like the “Sepharim” or “Books” in 9: 2, of which “Hassepher,” “the Book” of Moses was one. (Exod. 17: 14; Dan. 9: 11, 13.)  Already, from B.C. 603 to 533, the prophet had received various revelations, viz., those in chapters 2., 7., 8. and 9., and with the histories connected with them (1., 3., 4., 5., 6.), had faithfully recorded them in “the Book” (12: 4).  He “wrote” them (7: 1) at the time of their occurrence, as did other prophets (Isa. 7: 3; Jer. 19: 14; Hos. 1: 2), and “shut up the vision” (8: 26), and he tells us, as a prophet, and in view of his account, that what he wrote was “Truth,” not fiction, and “Truth” given by an angel from heaven, and by the Spirit of God, in answer to prayer (2: 17, 18; 9: 4); not a human invention, or production of his own will, or private interpretation of the mind of God; nothing of a psychological genesis, or even of a logical conclusion from any premises, nor a pious imagination, but an “Apocalypse,” a “Secret Revealed” by the “God of Heaven” (2: 18, 22, 27), and much of which he could not understand (8: 27).  These revelations contain the forecast outline history of the World-Power and of the Jews, with a chronological clock of the Ages down to the Second Advent of Christ - an apocalypse in which the Holy Land, the Holy City, and Israel, the Holy People, endure persistently, from first to last, in spite of all adverse fortune, reserved for a glorious destiny in the “Time of the End.”


And now the angel comes to add one more “Revelation” and “Word of Truth,” showing more particularly certain great events in Persian, Greek, and final Roman times, to be added to Daniel’s “Book,” so completing it, sealing it officially and transmitting it to be read and studied in the “Time of the End.” (12: 4.)  This final revelation the prophet solemnly declares is “Truth,” because the angel so declared. (10: 1-21.)  Gabriel also calls Daniel’s whole “Book” a “Kitab Emeth,” a “Writing” or “Scripture of Truth.”  Thus, from chapter 1. to 12. inclusive, all is “Truth,” not fiction.  By friend and foe alike, the unity of the book and its authorship is conceded.  Upon the supposition of the author’s piety and honesty, his repeated statements that the predictions were a “revelation” from God at the dates and places specified, and that an angel from heaven pronounced the words he brought to be “Truth,” and Daniel’s book a book of “Truth,” its prophecies to be fulfilled only “after many days” (10: 14; 12: 4); upon this supposition the modern hypothesis of Higher Criticism, that it originated near 400 years after Daniel was dead, and was composed by a Maccabaean novelist, is eternally excluded. Therefore, did the Holy Spirit use, purposely, the designation “Scripture of Truth, warning against the false criticism which, in all ages, would assail the “book,” and especially in ours, when the time for its last fulfilment approximates.  Knowing that the scoffer would come in the last days, curling his crest against the Pentateuch, the Prophets, the Sacred Books of History, and eminently against the Book of Daniel, the wisdom of God fore-issued this divine declaration against the unbelief that would account it a “fiction,” and so would fortify God’s people everywhere in opposition to a scientific scepticism that sports with a “Revelation” from heaven, an angel-spoken “word of Truth,” recorded by a holy “prophet,” and sanctioned by Christ and His apostles.  O, Daniel, greatly beloved, be strong, yea, be strong!”



*       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER EIGHT [Pages 87-105]




(Daniel, Chapters 10-12, continued – Chapter 11., 1-35, “Tsaba Gadol,” the “Warefare Great” – The Chapter Assailed as a Spurious Production – Reply – Geography of the Prophecy – The Eastern Question – Division of Chapter – The Persian Succession – The Greek – The Diadochian Kingdoms – Ptolemies and Seleucids – Campaigns against Egypt – Campaign against Palestine – The Maccabean Tribulation – The Martyr Roll.)





The Eastern Question is not a question of to-day, nor of yesterday.  When history first began to be written, it was already there.  When it is re-opened, all the world is concerned.  It is Occidentalism in its inevitable conflict with Orientalism.  Who is to be the champion or leader of Occidentalism, now - the Anglo-Saxon or the Slav?  The world is arraying itself in two grand camps.  It is no longer a question who shall hold Constantinople, or control the Suez Canal, or command the pass of Thermopylee, or dictate the oracles of Delphi.  It is the old question, stated now in terms of greater things.  The battle opens on the same old field, but the habitable globe is involved.  Islam was the reaction against Alexander’s inroads, and Turkey tarries in Europe only because the forces of Occidentalism are not united.”


                                                                                                                       - Wheeler.






1.  Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.  2. And now I will show thee the truth.  Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.  3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.  4. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.  5. And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.  6. And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king’s daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm; but she shall be given up, and they that bought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times. 7. But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8. and shall also carry captives into Egypt their Gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.  9. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.  10. But his Sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.  11. And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.  12. And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.  13. For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.  14. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.  15. So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.  16. But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.  17. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him: thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.  18. After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.  19. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.  20. Then shall stand in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within a few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.  21. And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.  22. And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.  23. And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.  24. He shall enter peacefully even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strongholds, even for a time.  25. And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army: and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army: but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.  26. Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.  27. And both these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.  28. Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.  29. At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.  30. For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do: he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.  31. And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.  32. And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.  33. And they that understand among the people shall instruct man: yet they shall fall by the sword, and captivity, and by spoil many days.  34. Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but shall cleave to them with flatteries.  35. And some of them of standing shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.  36. And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.  37. Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify   himself above all.  38. But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.  39. Thus shall he do in the most strongholds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall   cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.  40. And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships: and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.    41. He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.  42. He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.  43. But he shall have power over the   treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.  44. But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.  45. And he shall plant the tabernacles      of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”


In Daniel’s eleventh chapter the angel resumes and unfolds the prophetic history of the Medo-Persian and Graeco‑Macedonian empires, and, after a transition-section, in which both type and anti-type are blended, springs from. the “Time of the End” of the third, or Graeco-Macedonian empire to the “Time of the End” of the fourth, or Roman empire, i.e., from Antiochus Epiphanes to the last Antichrist.  Such is the manner of prophecy.  By this means he brings the close of his “Revelation” concerning the “Warfare Great” into harmony with the close in chapters 2., 7. and 9., and terminates in 12. his amazing apocalypse of the future of the Jews and of the kingdoms of the world.  Chapter 11., therefore, busies itself with (1) the Persian Ram and Grecian Goat of Daniel 8., expanding their history; (2) with Two of the Four Horns by which the Notable Horn (Alexander) on the Grecian Goat, in Daniel 8. was succeeded; (3) with the Little Horn that rose out of one of the Four, viz., with Antiochus Epiphanes, the type of the last Antichrist; (4) with the Little Horn that shall rise among the final Ten Horns of the fourth empire, viz. the last Antichrist represented here as “the King” (11: 36), the Antitype of Antiochus.


What we are now to consider in this long and difficult chapter, is the events of Persian and Grecian history, which led up to the Maccabaean persecution; then, in the next article, pass to the Antichrist, his last campaign, the Great Tribulation, ending in Daniel 12. with the Resurrection of the holy dead, Israel’s deliverance, and the “blessed” time of the kingdom.  First, however, a critical word.


Modern criticism has specially attacked this chapter (1) on account of the minuteness, multiplicity and exactitude of its details, and (2) on account of its perfect historical fulfilment, as far as 11: 35.*


[* Ecelesiasticus, B.C. 180, or sixteen years before B.C. 164, when some higher critics pretend Daniel’s book was composed, recognises Daniel 10: 13, 20, and imitates the texts.  The Septuagint, begun B.C. 281, or 117 years before B.C. 164, recognises the whole book of Daniel.  Meinhold has critically proved that the book was in existence from B. C. 250 to 300 before Christ.  But, more than all, by friend and foe alike, the unity of the authorship of the book is confessed]


The reason of this prophecy was the fact that for want of further details the vision in Daniel 8. wasnot understood” by him (8: 27), then because of the suspended work at Jerusalem, the prophet had “mourned and fasted” and seemed to think that the prediction in Daniel 9: 24-27 might  not be fulfilled (10: 2, 3); but having now received the details he declares that he came to “understanding of the vision” .(10: 1).  The reason of the prophecy is all-sufficient.  It was in the purpose of God that prophecy should cease with Malachi, and that during 400 years next ensuing, no prophet should arise to guide God’s people in a crisis that threatened to sweep away their new-built city, temple, religion, and even their existence.  What wonder, then, that, commiserating the plaint of the prophet who desired more details concerning the future, and knowing well the thunderbolt that would strike the Jews for their apostasy, the Lord, in Daniel 11., should repeat and amplify what had been begun in 8., just as He repeated and amplified in 8. what had been begun in 7. and 2.?  What wonder that He should thus forewarn the faithful against the sophisms and seductions with which the spread of Greek culture would ensnare them, and by the very details of forerunning events cause “them of understanding among the people” (11: 33) to see approaching danger, and so prepare and arm the faithful with the courage and the constancy that made the Maccabaean victory so glorious?


The forecast events, as year after year they were realised in history, and the day of trouble drew near, could only incite those “who feared the Lord to speak often one to another” (Mal. 3: 16), and confirm their own and their children’s faith.  And as to the far-off “End” on which the hope of Israel rested, what other termination could be given to this prediction of the “Warfare Great” than that which crowns the whole complex prophecy of this “Book” with Israel’s ultimate and full deliverance, connected with the Resurrection of the holy dead at Messiah’s Second Coming?  In both respects Daniel 11. and 12. are an illustrious proof of the love and care of God for His people, a monument of His unchanging faithfulness to all generations.  The objection to minuteness and multiplicity of details may be brought with equal force against the prophecies in Daniel 2. and 7. concerning the close of the 4th empire, and in 9. concerning the chronology and close of the 70 Weeks.  It is wholly worthless.  It would rule out the apocalypses of Ezekiel and John, and the minute predictions of all the prophets.


If is no man-made narrative, under the mask of prophecy, we have here, but true prediction, the tone, gaps, leaps, style and manner of prediction, its organic and typical relations.  It is a prophecy of “Warfare Great” not only between the nations, but between Israel and the nations.  There is not, in this chapter, a line, movement, campaign, alliance, intrigue, succession, victory or defeat, by sea or land, that does not in some way affect the fortunes of the Jews and Palestine.  There is not a movement of the Jews that does not in some way affect the empires and the kingdoms of this world.  It is a long “Warfare,” whose final action is decided alone by the Second Coming of Christ; a “Warfare Great” made necessary by the laws of history, the moral order of the universe, but, more than all, by the kingdom of God and the relation of Israel and the nations thereto.  With clairvoyant gaze, the eyes of the angel see the world-movements of Persia and Greece, from East to West and from West to East, and of the kingdoms of Syria and Egypt, from North to South and from South to North, involving Europe, Asia and Africa, Palestine now quivering like an aspen leaf in the wind, now crushed like a grape cluster in the winepress.


A deep philosophy of history is here, a mystery great, an age-long contention by rival powers for Palestine, involving a Jewish History that even Hegel confessed could not be explained on principles of natural evolution, a riddle whose solution is Israel hated by all nations, at last the master of all.  The angel sees in the situation at the close of the third empire a type of the situation at the close of the fourth, the Jews being the last bone of contention among the “Powers.”  He shows how the nations hold each other at arm’s length while professing friendship; how vain are the intrigues of kings and courts, the schemes of diplomats, merchants and explorers, revenue raisers and colonisers; how alliances and crowns are no effective pledge of national stability, and armies and fleets no guarantee of national security; how the reasons of defeat or victory lie deeper than tactics and strategy, even in a plexus of causes social, moral, religious civil and political, all under the controlling hand of God, and in a purpose of God with respect to the Jewish race which the whole concert of earth’s Powers is unable to thwart.  He selects and unveils momentous crises and epochs in the drama of the age next following the Exile-pivotal events around which the fortunes of the Jews and Palestine with all its destiny revolve - all of them prefigurations of the last crisis that ends with Israel’s victory and the triumph of the kingdom of God.


The geography of the prophecy is easily determined.  It is that of the empire of Cyrus, eight times greater than the empire of Babylon, stretching from Thibet and the Indus to the Mediterranean and Aegean seas, and from the Danube, Black Sea, Caucasus, Caspian and the Jaxartes, to the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf and the deserts of Arabia and Nubia - the empire of Cyrus, who struck the fetters from the Jews, restored the exiles and enabled them to build their temple and their city.  It is the empire of Alexander the Great, who carried his conquests still farther southward to the cataracts of the Nile.  It is the empire of Rome extended yet farther westward to the British Isles.  It is the territory covered by the Colossus of Gentile politics and power in Daniel 2. - the Scene of the “Warfare Great.”


Having glanced at the earlier world-movements East and West, and the fortunes of the Jews under Persian and Greek Supremacy, the angel specially unveils the movements North and South, his eyes ever resting on the Holy Land, the middle union-point of the three Old-World continents, the envy of all kings from the beginning of the world.  Nor even here does he narrow the scope of his vision, as the crisis for Israel comes on.  He causes to pass before us the whole East and West, North and South, the Syrian, Egyptian and Roman powers contending in Asia, Europe and Africa, Scipio in the field, Popilius on the Sea; Euergetes marching not merely to Antioch but to the Euphrates, and trundling homeward images and statues once the booty of Cambyses.  The expulsion of Antiochus the Great out of Europe, the ruin of Antiochus Epiphanes in Persia, are here, both connected with the fortunes of the Jewish people - a vivid illustration of that “ever-recurring law” of historical movement, which a Rawlinson, Stanley and Creasy have noted - invasion from North to South, and East to West, provoking counter movements, and regularly so at fixed though unequal intervals of times.  The Euphrates, Babylon, Persia, Armenia, Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, Italy, Greece, Crete, Cyprus, and always Palestine, are here; the Persian Gulf, the Caspian and Black Seas, the Agean and Mediterranean, all that pertain to the Turkish empire, are here; the Dardanelles, the Bosphorus and old Byzantiuin.  The shore-line of Palestine, the fortresses of Sidon, Gaza, Seleucia, and Pelusium are here; Antioch, Jerusalem, Damascus and Aleppo, the Orontes, the Jordan, the Nile and the Tiber - all clear to him who studies the “meaning” of the vision.  We hear, as we read, the shouts of encountering hosts, and see the assaults on beleagured citadels, the sea-fights at Ephesus and Chios, the battles of Raphia, Magnesia, Mount Panium near the sources of the Jordan, the horrors at Jerusalem, and sit beside diplomats and kings intriguing in their palaces to unite their kingdoms, with Palestine as the dowry of their royal brides.


It is the “Eastern Question” that is here, a question not limited or local, but ubiquitous, affecting to-day the deepest interests of Russia, England, France, Austria, Germany, Egypt, Greece, Turkey and Palestine, in their relations to each other, to India, China and Japan, and to Africa, affecting the whole world; an age-long contention between conflicting civilisations, with creeds and forms of government, and prejudices of race and tradition diverse and opposed as the poles; that “mache athanatosof Plato, the “immortal conflict” between truth and error, right and wrong, which endures till a “new cycle” of time shall bring its close.  What statesman in any cabinet or chamber of modern legislation has ever lifted his voice to tell the world that, as in Moses, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Zephaniah and Zechariah, so here Daniel has exhibited, in chapters 8. and 11.,.the “Eastern Question in terms impossible to be misunderstood, or that the waters of the Hellespont, the Aegean and Mediterranean seas, with the Isles of Greece and Asia Minor, and the main lands washed by them - the storm-centre of the Eastern Question in every age form for the prophet the geographical theatre of his vision of the “Warfare Great?” or that here the fleets of the nations must meet to sink and sail no more, in that final crisis when “Heaven, Earth, Sea, Dry Land, and all Nations” are “shaken?”  It is the light of prophecy that enables us to see and understand the immense significance of the recent acts of the “Powers” in reference to Crete, Greece, Turkey, Armenia, and what the parallel Jewish movements forebode.  In the words of a great and deep writer in our day, “International politics, the world over, are resolvable into some form of the Eastern Question: It haunts the history of civilised mankind.”


But to come back.  It belongs to the very perfection of the prophecy, whose compactness and lapidary brevity are without a parallel, that volumes of detail can be crowded into its exposition.  It is a “Scripture of Truth” covering the fortunes of the Jews in contact with the nations, from the third year of Cyrus, B.C. 534, to the eleventh year of Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 164, a period of three hundred and seventy years, together with the scenes and events preceding and during the 70 Weeks in chapter 9., the near horizon of the third empire, a type of the far horizon of the fourth.




The division of Daniel’s eleventh chapter is not difficult.  It falls into the following section: (1) verses 24; (2) verses 5-9; (3) verses 10-20; (4) verses 21-35; (5) verses 36-39; (6) verses 40-45.


1. Verses 2-4.  The Persian and Greek supremacies.  The angel first of all unrolls the Persian succession after Cyrus, as far as to the fourth in the line.  Three kings, the false Smerdis omitted, shall arise after Cyrus, the fourth one the proud invader of Greece.  These are


(1) Cyrus to Cambyses, B.C. 538-529.


(2) Cambyses to Darius Hystaspes, B.C. 529-521.


(3) Darius Hystaspes to Xerxes, B.C. 521-480.


(4) Xerxes’ Invasion in his fifth year, B. C. 480, a period of fifty-eight years.  Overleaping next a period of one hundred and forty-eight years, filled by a succession of eight Persian kings, he unveils the empire of Alexander the Great, “the mighty king,” and his counter invasion of Persia and the East (Dan. 11: 3)


(1) Alexander’s empire, B.C. 334-323.


(2) Alexander’s death, B.C. 323.


Overleaping a period of twenty-one years, he unveils the quadripartition of Alexander’s empire, B,C. 302, into the




(1) Egypt and Palestine ruled by Ptolemy.


(2) North Syria ruled by Seleucus.


(3) Macedonia and Thrace ruled by Cassander.


(4) Asia Minor ruled by Lysimachus.


These four generals of Alexander are called “Diadochi” or “Successors,” yet “not of his posterity” (Dan. 11: 4). Of these kingdoms the two selected by the angel for special prophecy were chosen because Palestine lay between them.  Under the title “King of the North,” i.e., of Syria, seven Seleucid kings, and under the title “King of the South,” i.e., of Egypt, six Ptolemies, are included, as follows, according to the times of their reigns:




(1) Ptolemy I. Soter, B.C. 323-285; Seleucus I. Nicator, B.C. 312-280 (Dan. 11: 5).


(2) Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, B.C. 285-247; Antiochus II. Theos, B.C. 261-246 (11: 6).


(3) Ptolemy III. Euergetes, B.C. 247-221; Seleueus II. Kallinikos, B.C. 246-226 (11: 7-9).


(4) Ptolemy IV. Philopator, B.C. 221-205; Seleucus III. Keraunos, B.C. 226-222 (11: 10-12).


(5) Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, B.C. 205‑181; Antiochus III., the Great, B.C. 222-187 (11: 13-19).


(6) Seleucus IV., B.C. 187-175 (11: 20).


(7) Ptolemy VI. Philometor, B.C. 181-146; Antiochus IV. Epiphanes, B.C. 175-164 (11: 21-35),


that is, six Ptolemies and six Seleucids prior to Antiochus Epiphanes; twelve in all, or thirteen in all, the reign of Antiochus I, B.C. 280-261, being overleaped and unnoticed.




Remarkable are the Intervals or Gaps in this prophecy of the future from the third year of Cyrus to the eleventh year of Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 534 to B.C. 175=359 years.  The angel chooses the events he foretells as stepping-stones to the crisis.  Prophetic history is one thing, ordinary secular history another.  No uninspired writer would write history as here forecast.  (1) An interval of one hundred and forty-six years lies between verses 2 and 3, from fifth Xerxes B.C. 480 to Alexander B.C. 334, including eight Persian kings.  (2) Another interval of twenty-one years, between the clauses in verse 4, from Alexander’s death to the quadripartition of his empire, B.C. 323 to 302.  (3) Another interval of thirty years, between verses 5 and 6, covering the omitted reign of Antiochus I., B,C. 280 to 261, and on to the alliance with Berenice, B.C. 250.  (4) Another interval of three years, between verses 6 and 7, from the murder of Berenice to the invasion of Syria by her brother, Euergetes, B.C. 250-247.  (5) Another interval of twenty years, between verses 9 and 10, from Euergetes to the Sons of Seleucus II., B.C. 247-227.  (6) Another interval of thirteen years, between verses 12 and 13, from the defeat of Antiochus III. at Raphia to his second invasion of Syria, B.C. 217-204.  (7) Another interval of eight years, between verses 17 and 18, from the alliance with Cleopatra to the last campaign of Antiochus III., B.C. 198-190.  The sum of the Intervals is two hundred and forty-one years, out of a period of three hundred and fifty-nine years covered by the prophecy.  The great interval of two thousand and sixty-one years already elapsed from B.C. 164 to A.D. 1897, between verses 39 and 40, will be seen hereafter.  No “historian” would write history in this way.  No “forger” would.  The intervals are proofs of the supernatural origin of the prophecy.  The angel unveils the




The warfare is waged from Ptolemy I. and Seleueus I. to the death of Antiochus Epiphanes (Dan. 11., 5-35, B.C. 306-164, a period of one hundred and forty-two years, somewhat more than the whole of the third and somewhat less than the half of the second century before the First Advent of Christ.  The angel gives us a picture of the “Warfare Great” at the close of the third prophetic empire, the struggle of the Northern Power to gain Coelo-Syria, Palestine, Phenicia and Egypt, then Macedonia and Asia Minor, in order to form one undivided empire, and so control the world’s commerce and acquire supremacy over the three great continents of Europe, Asia and Africa, the type of a scheme yet to be aimed at under the last Antichrist before the Second Advent of Christ.


2. Daniel 11: 5-9 describes B.C. 306-247, a period of fifty-nine years, from Ptolemy I. and Seleueus I, “one of the princes” of Ptolemy, and founder of the Syrian kingdom, 11: 5, to the first invasion of Syria by Ptolemy III., 11: 7.  Overleaping the reign of Antiochus I., 280-261, or twenty years, the angel foretells the disastrous alliance between Syria and Egypt, by the betrothment of Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II., to Antiochus II., Antiochus divorcing his wife in order to unite the two kingdoms with Palestine as the dowry of Berenice; the scheme ending in the assassination of the latter, 11: 6.  He foretells also the invasion of Syria under Seleueus II. by Ptolemy III., “a branch” out of Berenice’s “roots,” i.e., by her own brother, sprung from the same parents, in order to avenge her death; an invasion reaching to the banks of the Euphrates~ Ptolemy returning with “captives,” “gods,” and “gold and silver vessels,” and surviving Seleueus four years. (11: 6-9, B.C. 247.)


3. Daniel 11: 10-20 describes B.C. 227-175, a period of fifty-two years.  (1) Overleaping twenty years, B.C. 247-227, down to the “sons” of Seleueus II., viz.: Seleucus III., B.C. 227, and Antiochus III. the Great, B.C. 224, the angel foretells the invasion of Egypt by the latter and his overwhelming defeat at Raphia by Ptolemy IV., a victory, however, thrown away (11: 10-12, B.C. 217).  (2) Overleaping thirteen years, called “certain years,” B.C. 217-204, the angel unveils the second invasion of Egypt by Antiochus III., his stupendous victory over Ptolemy IV. at the battle of Mount Panium, near the sources of the Jordan, the elite of the Egyptian army unable to withstand him, his recovery also of the fortress of Sidon and the “fenced cities,” and his conquest of Palestine, “with destruction in his hand.” (Dan. 11: 13-16, B.C. 198.)  Irresistible force, a rich military chest, and strong allies should accomplish this.  But more, the “Robbers” of the Jewish people, the “Violent among the Jews,” the Revolutionists of the Holy Land, should league themselves with the King of the North to aid him, hoping thereby to win the independence of Palestine, but signally fail.  Hereby they should only bind on themselves the Syrian yoke, pave the way for the horrors to come under the Greek Antichrist Antiochus IV., and so on, without intent, help “fulfil the vision” of the “Warfare Great.” (11: 14.)


(3) After an imposing military demonstration there should be a second alliance between Syria and Egypt, a scheme again for the union of the two kingdoms, based on what Eastern monarchs would call “equitable negotiations” (not “upright ones”), all the more so since Egypt should be in her conqueror’s power; the scheme this - viz., the marriage of Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, to Ptolemy V., in order to betray Egypt into her father’s hands, a scheme foiled by her wifely fidelity to her husband; Cleopatra or ruin, the “equitable negotiations!” (11: 17, B.C. 195.)  (4) Finally, Antiochus III. should undertake an expedition against the coast islands of Asia Minor, B.C. 190, but suffer a fair and honourable yet lasting defeat by Scipio Asiaticus at the battle of Magnesia, losing also his fleet at Ephesus, and thus, punished for his insults, be driven in retreat towards his own stronghold, compelled to surrender all his European possessions, his Eastern ones also west of the Taurus, forced out of Europe by the Romans, loaded with indemnity, killed while plundering the temple of Jupiter at Elymais, and so disappearing for ever from human history. (11: 18, 19, B.C. 187.)  His successor, Seleucus IV., a “Revenue Raiser,” causing Heliodorus to go through Palestine, and attempting to plunder the temple, should enjoy a brief reign, and suffer by poison at Heliodorus’ hands a death as ignominious as that of his predecessor. (11: 20, B.C. 175.)  Thus, in his own way, in Daniel 11: 5-20, the angel foretold the founding of the Syrian kingdom (11: 5), unveiled two diplomatic scenes, one in the palace at Antioch (11: 6), the other in the palace at Alexandria (11: 17), one invasion of Syria (11: 7-9), two invasions of Egypt and the conquest of Palestine by the King of the North (11: 10-13).  Also his last campaign and ignominious end (11: 18, 19), with that of his successor (11: 20); the whole intended to lead up to the Advent of the “Madman,”Antiochus Epiphanes or Greek Antichrist‑viz.




4. Daniel 11: 21-35, was fulfilled typically in the career of Antiochus Epiphanes from B.C. 175 to 164.  Of this wild beast in human form the angel foretells that a “Vile” or “Contemptible Person” should, in the place of (“the state of”) Seleucus IV., stand up in his pride, a younger son of Antiochus the Great (born B.C. 221, dying ex. 164), the typicalLittle Horn” in Daniel 8: 9, twenty years a hostage at Rome, and without title to the throne, and should, at the age of fifty-eight years, effect a successful coup d’etat, usurping by craft the Syrian crown (11: 21, B.C. 175); that, under him, the same playing fast and loose with truth and treaties, which distinguished his house, and now prevails in modern times, should continue, the same diplomacy in foreign affairs, the utter absence of good faith and presence of dissimulation, the pretence of peace while preparing war, the promise of reforms for Israel while effecting none, the practice of menace, intrigue, and force, to secure dynastic interests, a policy in which financial and political would be the first and justice, truth, humanity, and righteousness the last considerations; that, true to the traditions of this house, he would establish his kingdom (1) by leaguing with apostate Jews, when Palestine came into his possession, breaking a pre-existing covenant to give the Holy Land to Egypt’s queen as her dowry, and in which Ptolemy Philometor was “prince of the covenant” (11: 22), repelling by superior force “the arms of a flood,” viz., Ptolemy’s invasion of Syria to enforce a treaty right, and entering into a new treaty; and that, “after the league made with him,” he, Antiochus, would “work deceitfully,” (11: 23); (2) by taking advantage of the wars in Macedonia, Greece, and Southern Europe, he would endeavour to conquer Egypt, uniting both kingdoms in one, then Macedonia, Thrace, Greece, and Asia Minor, so forming one mighty empire out of all, controlling the Mediterranean and acquiring supremacy over the three continents.*


[* The best expositors hold that the Last Antichrist, of whom Antiochus was such an exact type, will himself re-enact all the predicted career described from verse 21 to the end of Daniel 11., when he shall emerge from being only a Little Horn, to become king of the North (Syria), like Antiochus did.  Antiochus only enacted typically the history detailed in verses 21 to 35‑EDITOR.]




would be three, and in the following order‑viz.:


(1) The First Campaign would be a crafty entrance into Egypt with a small force, “in time of security,” marching along the rich provinces of Lower Egypt - the Nile Valley - coming up as far as Memphis, simulating friendship, yet plundering the country, and, in order to become “strong” with the Egyptians, distributing wealth and spoil to the people, contrary to the custom of his house, and plotting against the fortresses. (Dan. 11: 23, 24, B.C. 173)


(2) The Second Campaign would be in force, courageously defeating the great army of Ptolemy, betrayed by his own courtiers into the hands of Antiochus; that, then forming a new treaty, one king in the power of the other, “both these kings’ hearts would be to do mischief,” both “speaking lies at one table,” yet unsuccessfully, because God had set a time-limit to their intrigues.  The angel here draws a picture of modern diplomacy also, true to the life.  He paints Gentile politics and power in living costume, the code and cunning of the great Colossus, the inner life of the Beasts. (Dan. 11: 25-27, B.C. 170)


(3) The Third Campaign should be in force again, but disastrous to Antiochus, since Popilius Loenas and the Roman fleet from the naval stations at Cyprus and Crete – “the ships from Kittim” - would compel him to vacate Egypt at once and try his hand elsewhere. (Dan. 11: 29, 30, B.C. 168)


Still more the angel predicts that his




would be two, and in the following order‑viz.


(1) The First Campaign would be upon his return northward from his Second Expedition against Egypt. Furious because of distraction, and excited by rumours of revolt in Jerusalem, he would assail the Holy City, Temple, People, Worship and Mosaic institutions - invading the Holy land, devoting to destruction 80,000 Jews, taking 10,000 prisoners, rifling the temple of 1,800 talents, equal to $3,250,000, set up a High Priest to suit himself, the mitre, robes, and breast-plate of Aaron already sold for 440 talents, 150 more given him for the right to erect a Greek Gymnasium to please young men of Jerusalem weary of their covenant with God. Thus should he “do” and go home to Antioch. (Dan. 11: 28, B.C. 170; 1 Mace. 1: 16-28; 2 Mace. 5: 11-21.)


(2) The Second Campaign would be upon his expulsion from Egypt by the Roman fleet under Popilius (Dan. 11: 30), when, humiliated and raging like a madman, he would return northward with indignation against the “Holy Covenant,” and in league with the apostates, devote 20,000 more to massacre, pollute the bulwarked sanctuary of God, abolish the Daily Sacrifice, set up “the Abomination causing desolation” - a pagan altar on the altar of Jehovah - violating mothers and daughters, and hanging infants, increasing by corruption the number of apostates, and giving orders to his generals if failing to Hellenize the Holy People, then to “root out the seed of Abraham,” “root out their religion,” “root out the whole race of Jews,” and “make Jerusalem a common burying-ground” (11: 31, 32). All which he would “do,” or attempt to “do.” (B.C. 168-165; 1 Mace. 1: 29-64; 3: 32-37.)  The climax of horror was reached 15th and 25th December, B.C. 168.  The vision of it is given typically in Daniel 8: 9-14, 23-25.


But, though ground between contending empires, God would not forsake His people.  His covenant stands fast. Evermore there shall be “a remnant according to the election of grace,” a company of overcoming souls, faithful to death, ordained to wear a crown brighter than David wore, and jewelled with gems more lustrous than the stones on Aaron’s breast.  If Antiochus can do, God’s people also shall do.  The angel foretells




He depicts the unsurpassed courage of a holy Matthias and his five sons, among whom Judas Maccabaeus, the “Hammer” of God - a Charles Martel before his time - and all his Asmodean heroes, should stand forth strong in the strength of God, resisting the commandments of the Greek Antichrist – God’s own, who, through faith, should “obtain a good report,” when persecution would be the greatest, the tyrant’s rage the hottest.  The people who know their God shall be strong and do!” (Dan. 11: 32.)  Soul-thrilling is the record of their deeds, in 1 Maccabeus. 2: 1-70.  He predicts, that the holy Teachers, the “Maskilim,” or men of understanding, should instruct the people to stand for the true God and the religion of their fathers in the midst of captivity and martyrdom by flame and sword, spoiled of all things, their only raiment sheepskins and goatskins, their home the battle-field, their shelter the dens and caves of the earth; that a little band of pious souls, the faithful “Chasidim,” would rally to their help, when all seemed lost; that a crowd of cowards, deserters in time of danger, hypocrites and flatterers in time of victory, would cleave to them that among the slain should be some of the brave hero-leaders who would win the martyr’s crown; that God’s design was to “try, purify and make white” His loved ones, show to the world the indestructibility of grace, the power of faith and patience of hope, and that neither tribulation nor distress, nor persecution, famine, nakedness, peril or sword, could separate them from His love; and, finally, that though severe, the tribulation would be short, even, “for an appointed time,” so does the angel unveil the “Warfare Great” at the close of Old Testament times.


That the illustrious heroes of the Maccabaean age were sustained by the Hope of the [better] Resurrection, which their holy prophets, from Moses to Daniel, had set before them - yea, from Abraham’s day - their history most touchingly attests.  Thrilling beyond description is the story of the martyrdom of the Maccabaean mother and her seven sons - a story without a parallel for pathos and effect upon the heart, save in the case of Him who was the Author and Finisher of their faith.  The “Seven,” tortured and slaughtered one by one, before the eyes of her who bore them and nursed them in their infancy, died with her under God’s covenant of everlasting life, their noble mother cheering and sustaining them amid their agonies, then crowning the aceldama with her own triumphant death.  With what calmness, holy resolution and courage of faith, they met their fate!  Thou, 0 persecutor, takest us out of this present life, but the King of the Ages will raise us up to life everlasting” - an allusion to Daniel 12: 1.  These bodies, this corruptible, we lay down for the sake of His laws, hoping to receive them again.”  This they knew, that “God will restore to His saints their bodies when He shall raise to life the dead men of this nation, even the slain of His people” - an allusion to Isaiah 26: 19.  Sublime in moral heroism are the words of the seventh son, the other six already weltering in their blood: “And thou, 0 godless wretch, of all men most abominable, be not lifted up.  Our brethren, having now suffered a short pain, have died under the covenant of everlasting life; but thou shalt receive, through the judgment of God, the just punishment of thy presumption.”  Already the fourth son had as calmly and solemnly spoken, It is good being put to death by men, to look for hope from God, to be raised again; but, for thee, there shall be no resurrection to eternal life” - an allusion to Isaiah 26: 14.  Then, lastly, the immortal mother who, in the ecstasy of immolation, poured forth the full tide of her un-bosomed love and faith, and slaughtered, fell on sleep to wake with her sons in the resurrection of the just.  Blessed are the dead who die, in the Lord.” (Rev. 14: 13; 2 Mace. 7: 1-12; 5 Mace. 1: 13.)  Thus did the Old Testament saints look to the second coming of Christ with an intensity of faith and ardour of expectation, that puts to shame the attitude of the Christian Church to-day, with reference to that sublime and glorious event.


The holy Apostle Paul has embalmed the memory of the martyrs of the Law, and extolled their exploits with the unction of his inspiration.  His heart heaves and his pen burns as he presents them to us for our imitation, crowned by the example of the blessed Jesus.  They waxed valiant in fight and turned to flight the armies of the aliens,” as did Judas Maccabaeus, scattering at one time 9,000 of the foe with only 1,500 men, at another 110,000 with only 8,000, the battle-cry on their lips, “God our Help!”  Victory from Jehovah!”  The Kingdom Forever!”proof that the modern maxim, “God is on the side of the strongest battalion,” is a lie!  Out of weakness they were made strong.”  They were tortured, not accepting deliverance (as was the fact with the mother and her seven sons) that they might obtain a better resurrection!”  Others had trial of cruel mockings, yea, moreover, of bonds and imprisonments.  They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, they were slain with the sword.  They wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, tormented, of whom the world was not worthy!  They wandered in deserts and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth!  And all these” - the Old Testament heroes of the faith – “having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise (of life everlasting, [at the ‘First Resurrection] never to die), God having provided some better thing for us (even Christ at both His comings) that they, without us, should not be made perfect.” (Heb. 11: 34-40.)


These glorious martyrs of the Law at the close of the third or Greco-Macedonian prophetic empire - twice immortalised in the Scriptures - the prophet Daniel teaches us are the forerunners of martyrs yet to be, at the close of the fourth or Roman empire, under the last Atitichrist. (Dan. 7: 25, 9: 27; 12: 1, 7.)  The apostle Paul set them before the New Testament saints as examples to inspire their courage and lead to imitation of their fortitude – “a cloud of witnesses,” then beholding and now beholding our warfare and our race.  He adds, to them “Jesus,” the Christian proto-martyr, the Author and Finisher of the “faith” by which those heroes obtained a good report.


By such examples and the love of Christ, that “cloud” has been expanded to 20,000,000 martyrs more in New Testament times, the latest the brave Armenians who were “slain with the sword” rather than abjure their faith and accept the creed of Islam.  The holy John assures us that the early Christian martyrs, also, were the forerunners of martyrs yet to be in the Time of the End who will cheerfully drink - as did they - the Cup the Saviour drank, and be baptized with the baptism He was baptized with.  And foremost shall be their glory, as foremost was their suffering.  In that galaxy of saints shine a Stephen, Peter, Paul, and James; a Polycarp, Ignatius, Irenaeus, and Justin; a Wickliffe, Huss, and Jerome of Prague; a Wishart and Hamilton; a Rogers, Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley, and holy Bradford; with millions more - the victims of Antiochus, of Nero, of Torquemada, the Duke of Alva, Claverhouse, and “Abdul the Damned” - a happy fellowship, whose effulgence in the resurrection shall correspond to the suffering by which they testified their loyalty and love.  To comfort such, in view of the tribulation to come upon them, every apocalypse in both Testaments was given, without exception.  To be among that blessed company, Paul desired that literally he might “be made conformable to the death of Christ, if by any means he might attain to the resurrection [out] of the dead” (Phil. 3: 10, 11), and nobly won his desire. (2 Tim. 4: 6.)  Of such, with special emphasis - sharers with the Maccabaean heroes - the Holy Spirit has said “the world was not worthy” - peerless souls whom God Himself has “counted worthy of the kingdom of God” (Heb. 11: 38; 2 Thess. 1: 5); while the “timid and unbelieving,” who “love their lives” and seek to “save” them, shall “lose” them and have their portion among “them that are without” (Rev. 21: 8; 12: 11).



*       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER NINE [Pages 106-120]




(Daniel, Chapters 10-12., continued – Chapter 11: 36-45 – The Transition-Section – Various Views – True View of the Type and Antitype – Place of the Great Interval Between the Ends of the Third and Fourth Empires – Photograph of the Antichrist – The Antichrist’s Last Campaign and World’s Last Battle – “Time of the End” – The Three Greater Powers in the Field – Occupation of Egypt – Invasion of Palestine – The Great Tribulation – Michael Standing over the Jews – Angelic War in Heaven – Universal War on Earth – Joel’s Picture of the Scene – Zechariah’s – Isaiah’s – John’s – The Blood Bath – The Preparation of the Nations for the Struggle – The Military Budgets of Russia, Germany, Austria, France, Italy – The Causes – The “Ever-recurring Law” – The Eastern Question and its Solution.)





I saw, far down the coming time,

The fiery chastisement of crime,

With noise of mingling hosts, and jar

Of falling towers and shouts of war;

I saw the nations rise and fall

Like fire-gleams on the whitened wall;

I saw them draw the stormy hem

Of battle ’round Jerusalem.

Who trembled at my warning word?

Who owned the prophet, of the Lord?


0 prophet of the beating heart,

For God’s great purpose set apart,

Before whose far-discerning eyes

The future as the present lies,

Beyond a narrow-minded age

Stretches thy prophet’s heritage

Through heaven’s dim spaces, angel-trod,

Through arches ’round the throne of God!

Thy audience, worlds! - all time to be

The witness of the Truth in thee!


                             - Whitter.








The previous article dealt with the angel’s words, concerning the “Warfare Great,” as far as to the Maccabaean period, viz., to Daniel 11: 35.  The present deals with the remainder of 11. in connection with 12.  The first thing here is




5. Daniel 11. verses 36-39.  The death of Antiochus Epiphanes is not recited at the close of 11: 30-35, B.C. 164; but it was given already in Daniel 8. 2, 5, in the description of the Little Horn or Fierce King in Daniel 8., which he typically fulfilled, “he shall be broken without hand.”  The silence is doubtless due to the fact that type and antitype are blended in “the King” (11: 36), continuing together through the section, until the one is displaced by the other.  The exit of “the King,” the Antichrist, is expressed in the words “he shall come to his end and none shall help him,” (11: 45).  His end” here, is “his end” in Daniel, 9: 26, i.e., the end of the “prince that shall come.”


The vital question that decides the division of the chapter from Daniel 10: 21, onward to the end, is how much refers to Antiochus, and how much to the Antichrist?  We encounter it at verses 21, 36, and 40.  It is (1) whether from 21 to the end of the chapter all relates to Antiochus or (2) all to the last Antichrist; or (3) all to both; or (4) whether 21-35 relates to Antiochus alone, and 36-45 to the Antichrist alone.  These views exhaust the history of the interpretation.  The first was held by Porphyry in ancient times - and is held by the higher critics.  The second was held by Jerome and some of the church fathers, the Interval between Selcucus IV. (11: 20) and the Antichrist being placed between verses 20 and 21.  The third view was next held by Jemome also, Theodoret and others, two senses, the literal and typical, allowed in order to include both Antiochus Epiphanes and the Antichrist.  Only in this sense was it that Jerome asked: “Suppose these things are said of Antiochus, what harm comes to our religion?”  The fourth view, viz., partly to Antiochus 21-35, and partly to the Antichrist, 36-45, was that of the learned Jews of Jerome’s time, and which he himself was inclined to adopt.*


[* Antiochus Ephiphanes fulfilled Daniel 11. from verse 21 to 35, and so far was an exact type of the Last Antichrist, who will also fulfil verses 21 to 35, but will then go much further than Antiochus, and will fulfil verses 36 to 45, which Antiochus did not fulfil, - EDITOR OF LONDON EDITION.]


As to the first view - that all the verses 21-45 apply to Antiochus - it is excluded by the fact that nothing in the career of Antiochus corresponds to this campaign of verses 40 to 45.  Never at any time did Antiochus march through Palestine, as “the King” here does (Dan. 11: 41), to invade Egypt, but only entered Palestine on his “return” from Egypt to Antioch (11: 28, 30), besides never having “the Lybians and Ethiopians at his steps.” One feature peculiar to the Antichrist, and not found in Antiochus, is his self-exaltation “above every god.” This absolute atheism in its extremist form was not true of Antiochus.  The “Warfare Great” ends only with the final deliverance of the Jews from the grasp of “the King” in verse 36, and with the resurrection of the holy dead (12: 1), at the coming of the Son of Man, and the King’s destruction (7: 13).  The Time of the End” (11: 40) is identical with “at that time” in 12: 1, and therefore “the King” in 36 is the “Him,” “He,” “His,” in 40-45, who is destroyed at the Second Coming of Christ.  A greater than Antiochus is here!  The identity of this blaspheming “King” with the last Antichrist is established by Paul (2 Thess. 2: 1-12) and by John (Rev. 13: 5-7) incontrovertibly.  Therefore did Hippolytus, the ablest and first real exegete of the Early Church, say, “Here is the Antichrist in 11: 36, 37.”  So did the Jews believe, and Jerome say of them: “The Jews maintain that the things here spoken relate to the Antichrist,” adding further: “Our writers hold that the things here predicted relate to the Antichrist - which, indeed, we also understand of the Antichrist.”  Dornstetter says: “The verses 40-45 in Daniel 11. cannot be explained of Antiochus” in any way.  Tiefenthal and Cornill, like Kuenen, Hitzig, Bevan, and Behrmann, also say that the section cannot be referred to anything known in the history of Antiochus.




1. The Double Personality, the King. (Dan. 11: 36.)


2. The Transition-Section. (Dan. 9: 36-39.)


3. The Great Interval Between. (Dan. 11: 39, 40.)


4. The Time of the End. (Dan. 11: 40-45.)


Jerome’s words are conclusive of the mature judgment of the Early Church.  Our writers hold that the things here predicted relate to the Antichrist.” Fraidi’s words are conclusive as to the judgment of the Middle Age: “The judgment of antiquity was that of the centuries following.”  Dusterwald’s words are conclusive as to modern times: “All, save the rationalists, hold that verses 40-45 pertain only to the Antichrist.”  As to the contents of the section before us, we come, now, to the




It surpasses that of Antiochus, bad as that is, and transcends all historical accounts of the Syrian tyrant.  The angel paints in bold relief the three predominating characteristics of the King.”  (1) His atheistic self-deifying egotism and blaspheming mouth.  Epiphanes, indeed, stood up against the “Prince of princes,” Israel’s Jehovah, and opposed him (8: 25), but it is not said that he exalted himself “above every god,” or blasphemed the “God of gods,” and refused to “regard any god,” as is said of “the King,” in 11: 36, 37.  Here is an atheism so absolute as to smite every Pantheon in antiquity, every ethnic god, as well as Jehovah.  Antiochus, however, was not “Atheos,” in an ethnic sense. “Theos” belonged as a title to his line, as “Divus” did to the Caesars.  He worshipped Olympian Zeus, set up his statue in Jerusalem, made presents to the god of Tyre, and created a temple in Antioch to Capitoline Jove, well known to his fathers.  Livy describes him as diligent “In deorum cultu.”  His ambition was to root out Judaism and install the Greek Pantheon in its place, and everywhere.  Very differently “the King,” in verse 36, exalts himself “above every god,” reckless of “any god,” and with eruptive mouth, face skyward, explodes his blasphemies against the God of gods,” the only true God.  He speaks marvellous things against the “God of gods.”  This, to the life, is the “Little Horn” in 7: 11, 25, who “speaks great words against the Most High.”  He is Paul’s “Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2: 4), “who exalteth himself above all that is called God, or is worshipped,” and will “sit in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God,” a thing Epiphanes did not do, nor any Caesar.  He is John’s personal Beast who “has a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies,” lifting his “mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, His tabernacle, and them that dwell therein.” (Rev. 13: 5, 6.)  It is in verses 36, 37, at the head of this transition-section, from Antiochus to Antichrist, Paul and John both find the final “Man of Sin,” the “Beast,” the “Antichrist,” the “Horn,” in Dan. 7: 8.  (2) His imbruted soul, dehumanized and dead to all the tenderest affections of human kind, disregarding even woman’s love, - “hemdath washim (compare 2 Sam. 1: 26), her desire of husband, home, maternity, the babe on her breast, her children, her daughters’ sanctity, the endearments of domestic life, and, like a Moslem or a Mongol, a Sultan or Khan, devoting all to outrage, agony, and massacre.  It is not a Syrian god or goddess that is meant by the phrase “love of women,” nor celibacy, nor illicit love.  So far from this, Antiochus Epiphanes was the father of a family, left his son Antiochus V. as his successor to the throne, and moreover, consorted publicly with the lewdest characters. Only in so far as his debaucheries were a disregard of woman’s purest love, does the description here apply to him.  (3) His adoption of a new god, in spite of his atheism, and for the sake of his followers as a stimulus to their military ardour, and a means of propagating his religion, viz., Allah Maozim,” the “god of fortresses,”. or “strongholds,” placing here his confidence, whether in the strongholds of the Orontes, Nile, Euphrates, Tigris, or Bosphorus, - in Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, or Asia Minor - (the parted empire of Alexander) - honouring “Allah” with “gold, silver, precious stones, and costly things, a god - unknown to his ancestors and whose religion he would propagate by the sword, procuring for his strongholds garrisons of people who acknowledged his strange god, increasing them with glory while putting to the sword all others, causing them to rule over the many, and because needing money for war, dividing the land he conquers, for the sake of gain.”  This the meaning of this difficult verse.  Such the three great characters of “the King” of the future.  The first was not seen in Antiochus to the extent here predicted.  The second was seen in his butchery of infants in Jerusalem, his treatment of the Maccabaean mother and her sons, and his inhuman conduct everywhere.  The third was seen in the confidence he placed in fortresses, and in the propagation of his religion by the sword. But yet, the full reality of all awaits the future and the final Antichrist.





6. Daniel 11: 40-45.  It is only in his military character the Antichrist is here presented, and it is only a section of the wide-world “Warfare Great” that is here given; that which pertains to the final struggle of the Jews for the re-possession of their land, and their final deliverance from Gentile power.  The time is called the “Time of the End.”


In whatever sense the words “at that time” in Dan. 12: 1, are taken, - a sense determined by the events described in 1-3, in the same sense the “Time of the End” in (11: 40-45) must be taken, because the “Time of the End” here, is “that time” there.  The two are chronologically one, and the events of 11: 40-45 contemporate with those in 12: 1-3, the Deliverance of Israel and the resurrection from the dead directly connected with the destruction of “the King” (11: 45).  No interval exists between 11: 45 and 12: 1.  The expression “the Time of the End” the same as the “End of Time.”  It does not denote the end of history, nor of the planet, nor of nations, but the End of our present Age, the 70th week itself in 9: 27, the last half of which is seen in 7: 25 and 12: 7.


It is the time when the Antichrist will make a “covenant,” or “treaty,” with the Jews for one week of seven years, granting them a modus vivendi, in their own land, with civil rights, and permission to revive their ancient worship; then suddenly soon after, because of some important event in their history which threatens his own empire, perhaps their effort to gain their independence, will violate his “covenant” (9: 27), and “on the wing of abomination” become their bitterest enemy, seeking their extirpation.  By such means he accelerates his own destruction.  Coincident with his last campaign is the campaign of “Gog and Magog” led by the “Prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal,” and connected with the defeat of both Gog and the Antichrist, and with the restoration of Israel. (Ezek. 38: 1-23; 39: 1-29; 37: 1-28.)


The “Time of the End” is of the intensest interest, as it brings the end of the “Warfare Great,” with the momentous events that follow.  The angel predicts that at the “Time of the End” the King of the South shall “push” and open the great campaign; that then “the King” (Antichrist) will mobilise his forces, “enter into the countries” round about, “overflow” them with his troops, and “pass over” into Palestine, “the glorious land,” and that “myriads shall be overthrown” (Dan. 11: 12) - in short, that entering Palestine from the north, his line of march will be southward through Palestine, subjecting the insurrectionary Jews, many here as elsewhere being “overthrown”; that, nevertheless, the transjordanic regions occupied by Israel when they first entered the Holy Land, viz., Edom, Moab, and the chief city of Ammon, “shall be delivered out of his hands.” - lands called by Isaiah “the shoulders (i.e., mountains) of the Philistines,” that, notwithstanding this, “the King” shall enter Egypt, and the tribes of North and South Africa shall flock to his standard, and “Egypt shall not be able to deliver itself,” and that the treasures of Egypt shall be at the King’s command.  The angel further predicts that later on “tidings out of the East and out of the North” will be the Nemesis that will precipitate the doom of the King - rumours of insurrections - a strategic movement also in the East and North by some power advancing on Palestine compelling him to go forth, and occupying Jerusalem by assault (Zech. 14: 2), he will plant his military headquarters on Mount Moriah, “the mountain of the beauty of holiness,” between the Mediterranean and Dead Seas, and there - at Jerusalem – “come to his end, with none to help him” (11: 45). Thus, he will perish in the military overflowing – “in the flood” (9: 26; Isa. 59: 19) - struck by the Second Coming of Christ (7: 13, 25, 26; Isa. 11: 4; 2 Thesa. 2: 8; Rev. 19: 11).


Still further, the angel predicts that, “at that time,”* a spectacle unparalleled in magnificence, and followed by events incomparable in importance for the kingdom of God, shall take place ; that the “Warfare Great” shall extend itself to the unseen world; that “Michael, the great prince that standeth for the children of thy people” (Daniel’s people, the Jews), shall “stand over” them, and there shall be “War in Heaven,” Rev. 12: 7, a battle of battles in aerial regions between the powers of light and darkness, a conflict of principalities and powers leagued for Israel’s destruction, with angelic hosts leagued for Israel’s defence; an onset by “Michael and his angels,” against the “Dragon and his angels,” a warfare against “the hosts of the high ones on high,” as well as against “the kings of the earth on the earth” (Isa. 24: 21); heaven, earth, sea, dry land, all nations, shaken; commotion above, commotion below, commotion everywhere, and specially in Palestine.


[* The phrase “At that time” comprehends a period of somewhat more than the final three and a half years. The King of the South (Egypt) pushes at the Last Antichrist, while only King of the North (Syria). Then “Antichrist” overflows and passes over and enters into the countries, and many countries are overthrown (see Dan. 11: 40 to 43).  At that time Antichrist becomes Roman Emperor of the Ten Kingdoms for three and a half years, at the end of which he will come to his end in fulfilment of Dan. 11: 45.‑ EDITOR OF LONDON EDITION.]


Elsewhere, we learn that Michael’s standing “over” the children of Israel, is at the middle of the 70th week, and, Michael is victorious over Satan, dejecting him from aerial regions to the earth. (Rev. 12: 9.)  Then the Great Tribulation begins. (Rev. 12: 12; Matt. 24: 22.)  This fixes the date of Michael’s standing up as the date when the Antichrist is forced out of Egypt, a part of the alarming “tidings” being that many Jews have become Christian, a rumour that excites the wrath of the Antichrist, and compels him to “go forth” resolved to break his “covenant” with all Jews and “root out the seed of Israel from the earth.”  Then he will war with the whole body of believers everywhere.  The angel predicts that the tribulation will continue three and a-half years (Dan. 12: 7), and that at the close of this period the final deliverance of the Jews shall take place, the resurrection of the holy dead also, and the destruction of the Antichrist (12: 13, 7).  These events so stupendous are inseparable from the Second Coming of Christ to close the “Warfare Great” and introduce the millennial age. That will be a time which whoever lives or is waked from his grave to see is a “Blessed” man - in short, the time when the “kingdom” of Christ is brought to victory “underneath all heavens” (7: 27).


As to the fulfilment of verses 40 to 45 in Daniel 11., enough has been said already to show its impossibility in the time of Antiochus.  Up to the present year (1898) all the prophecies of Daniel (save the remainder of the interval from 1898 to the 70th week, and the 70th week itself) have met their literal accomplishment in the exactest and minutest manner.  But these verses await the future.  That it was not fulfilled in the siege of Jerusalem by Titus is evident from this, that our Lord places the great tribulation here spoken of (Dan. 12: 1-12) in the future, commencing with the middle of the 70th week, when the “abomination of desolation stands in a holy place,” and ending with His coming in the clouds of heaven. (Matt. 24: 15-31; Dan. 7: 13.)  The whole tenor of Old and New Testament prophecy seems to fix the time when the “Man of Sin” will “sit in the temple of God” (2 Thess. 2: 4) as the time when Satan is dejected from his aerial sphere by Michael.  It is then that Satan enters into Antichrist, and he invades Palestine, and sets up the abomination of desolation. (Rev. 11: 7, 12: 17.)  It is then - that in his madness he seeks to root out Israel, “set in the temple of God” (Rev. 11: 1), makes war with the saints everywhere, Jews or Gentiles, and inaugurates the Tribulation.  Whatever forelights of this have been recognised in the Saracenic and Turkish “Woes” upon apostatising Christendom in the Middle Age, and in the capture of Jerusalem by Caliph Omar, A.D. 637, and, last of all, by the Turk, A.D. 1187 and 1517, it is still certain that the campaign of the last Antichrist lies in the future.  The all-embracing prophecy includes all, and evermore the last is the highest, most exhaustive and literal fulfilment.


That the last crisis is impending is undeniable.  The whole world is preparing for the last act in the tragedy of the “Warfare Great.”  Christendom is already one vast military camp and naval depot.  The son of Pethuel is again on his watch-tower, blowing the trumpet in Zion, summoning the nations to “come up” to Jerusalem, and the Lord and His mighty angels to “come down from heaven.  Joel 3: 9-16 has dramatised the scene in a most thrilling manner – the scene of the advance of the nations, marching to the “Valley of Decision,” where the “Eastern Question” will be “decided.”




Proclaim ye this among the nations.  Prepare war.  Wake up the mighty men.  Let all the men of war draw near.  Let them come up. Haste ye, and come, all ye nations round about, and assemble yourselves together.” This the summons.




Thither cause thy mighty ones to come down, 0 Lord!”  This the prayer.




Let the nations bestir themselves, and come up to the Valley of Jehosophat, for there will I sit to judge all the nations round about.”  This the locality.


Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe.  Come, tread ye, for the wine-press is full, the vats overflow, for their wickedness is great.”  This the order.




Multitudes! Multitudes in the Valley of Decision, for the Day of the Lord is near in the Valley of Decision! The sun and the moon are darkened, the stars withdraw their shining.  And the Lord shall roar from Zion, and utter His voice from Jerusalem.  And the heavens and the earth shall shake, but the Lord will be the Hope of His people, and a stronghold to the children of Israel.”  This last the consolation.


Such the solemn scene, where the Antichrist is judged and Gentile politics and power go down in blackness and blood.  The same scene is given in Isaiah 59: 19-21 and 66: 5-16; in Daniel 7: 9-14; in Zephaniah 3: 8-20; in Zechariah 12: 2-14, 13: 1, in 14: 1-11.  It is given in Matthew 25: 31-46.  It is the scene of the sickle-judgment, and the wine-press with “blood up to the horses’ bridles” in Revelations 14: 12-20, and of “Heaven Opened” for the Antichrist’s destruction in Revelations 19: 11-21.  It follows the Armageddon rendezvous in Revelations 16: 12-16, and is the end of the “Warfare Great” when the Son of Man comes to “take away the Sultanate” of the Horn, and “consume and destroy it to the end” (Dan. 7: 26).  All the prophets, Christ and His Apostles, have looked to this “End” of our age.




History is the after-clap of which prophecy is the fore-stroke; the echo of which prophecy is the voice.  The growth of modern armies and the man-killing power of their weapons, the destructive enginery of modern warfare by land and sea, during the last twenty-five years is appalling.  The augmented war-material, and armies swollen beyond all precedent, in times of peace, are the omen of disaster to the world.  They are the presage of the judgment day on all nations, no arbitration can arbitrate away.  The guilt of Christendom must meet its punishment.  The condemnation of the “Christian Nations” is their military strength.  The army of drilled soldiers of Italy, to-day, is 1,473,000 men of all arms; of Austria, 2,076,000; of Germany, 4,300,000; of France, 4,300,000; of Russia, 4,800,000; not to mention Great Britain, Turkey in Europe, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and the millions in Asia and Africa, nor to think of the enormous naval strength of the world.  Omit the whole, save the military force of the “Five Powers” on the continent of Europe, including Russia, and the trained soldiers in A.D. 1897 were 16,049,000 armed men.


Yet these Five Powers are powerless to compel the Turk or each other to justice or humanity.  The causes of this vast “military Christendom of the Nineteenth Century” are familiar to all; the advance of science in destructive agencies, mutual distrust of the nations, their rivalries and jealousies, treachery and breach of treaties, balance of power, the peace of Europe, enormous increase of wealth, expansion of commerce, the fact that resistless power knows no moral law, the ambition of Europe to divide the non-Christian nations, partition Asia and Africa, and control the mines and markets of the world, lust for supremacy, want of righteousness, the discontent of the masses, the increase of unbelief and crime, and the corruption of Gentile politics and power. Add to those the apprehension of a collision between the East and West, and the coming struggle with Islam, Judaism, and each other.  The prelude to that will be the



of the world for a period of time - the “silence for the space of half an hour, in heaven,” the “four angels holding back the winds,” the solemn hush when the air is breathless and the leaves are motionless; then the thunder-burst of Judgment!  At such a time, Israel’s claims will come up for settlement such as Europe, Asia, and Africa cannot make.


Prepare war! Come up to the Valley of Decision!  It is the “Eastern Question.”  It was the burning question when Joel spoke, 900 B.C., the burning question now, and now as then the nations are waiting the order to march!  It is an old question.  Its antiquity remounts beyond the days of Chedorlaomer and Abraham.  It existed before Russia, England, France, or Turkey wore born - before ever Constantinople, Rome, Alexandria, or London had a name.  It means the conflict of civilisations - a conflict governed by “the ever-recurring law of history,” viz., invasion at stated intervals, from East to West, and reversely from West to East; from North to South, and reversely, till at last the whole world is involved.  It was the question that sank the Persian empire and brought to Greece her national existence and her glory - the question on which a Perieles and Demosthenes exhausted their oratory, and where a Cicero stood in the majesty of eloquence, a Caesar in the splendour of arms - the question for Antiochus Epiphanes - the Huns and the Mongols, the Tartars  - Islam! - in every case the “Holy Land” its centre.


The Middle Ages saw all Europe precipitate itself on Palestine, only to be hurled back by the Moslem, after 300 years of war.  Turn whatever way, it is identified with the fortunes of the Jew.  Deeper and broader interests than those of England, France, Russia, Austria, Germany, Greece, Turkey, India, China, and Japan in the oceans, sells, waterways, markets and mines of the world, are involved - the interests of Israel and of the [millennial] kingdom of God.  The cry of the muezzin sounds daily over two cities of universal fame - Jerusalem and Constantinople - where once the Religion of Jehovah and the Religion of Christ ruled supreme, and the Imaum’s prayer to Allah ever ascends: “0 Allah, destroy the infidels, defile their abodes, and give their women, children, friends and wealth as booty to the Moslem!” - all this with the “consent” and “concert” of the so-called “Christian Powers!”  How can the “kingdom” come apart from a judgment day and the decision of the “Eastern Question”?


That gifted historian, J. von Mueller, has not said in vain. “No thoughtful man can read history, or look upon the face of Christendom, and not be impressed with the conviction that the same law of righteousness that brought the ancient empires to their end, must prevail at last against the empires and kingdoms now existing.” Nemesis must come.  And say what men may, the battle opens in the same old centre, the Aegean Sea, and the relation of the Holy Land and Israel, geographically and politically, as well as religiously, must assert itself, as before, the more the “Warfare Great” approaches its end.  Nor is there anything in international politics anywhere that does not lead to this centre, even as the Roman roads all led to the Golden Milestone of the Forum.


It is not for nothing that the histories of the “Seven Great Monarchies” and the hundred histories of the “People Israel," and of the “Religion of Israel,” and the “Explorations in Palestine,” have been written in these last days, and the scholarship of modern times been called to exert itself in Old Testament studies as never before. The “Future” has become a theme of exciting interest.  What means the unexampled interest, to-day, in the “Maps and Survey of Palestine,” in such books as “The Recovery of Jerusalem,”  The History of Jerusalem,” “Palestine under the Moslems,” “The City and the Land,” “Judas Maccabaeus and the War for Independence,” “The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem,” all by the first scholars of our generation?  And what the reversal of the English policy towards Turkey, and of the Russian also, each occupying the place the other did, five years ago? What the scenes in Mediterranean waters, the unparalleled growth of the Zionist movement, the lectures in European Universities on the “Jewish Problem,” the “Societies” among Christian peoples for the conversion of the Jews; the absolute control of the finances of the nations by the Jews, and their influence over science, literature, journalism, the seats of instruction, and the international politics of the Old World?  And what the threatening attitude of the East and West, the South and North, and the alliances of the “Powers”?


It is with some providential intent the labours of a Curtius and Grote, a Stanley and Rawlinson, a Mueller and Weltzhofer, a Meyer and Brandis, have drawn attention to the “laws of historical development,” and shown how the destiny of the Jews affects the destiny of all nations, and that “in the near future, the world may expect to see the operation of the law, more powerfully than ever.”  The “Powers” will not be allowed of God to continue their concert of crime perpetually, for their own benefit, and the hindrance of the kingdom of God.  The rivalries of the Greek states, after Alexander’s death, left the Eastern Question unsettled for many generations, Palestine passing from one Power to another.  After the “push” of Europe against the Moslem, Jerusalem, regained, was lost by the rivalries of Kings, Dukes, and Barons, unworthy of the valour of a Tancred and Godfrey.  After the defeat of the Turk before the walls of Vienna, again the rivalries of European sovereigns left the question unsettled, remaining so to this day.  Doubtless, God’s hand was in this, as well as Satan’s and the hand of man, for the “End was not yet.”  More development, more missionary work, more preparation for the solution of so vast a problem, were required – more atrocity in demonstration of the unchanged selfishness of the “Powers,” more ripening in sin and disregard of moral righteousness.  The power holding Palestine must prepare for the power ruling the South to “push at him,” and the power of the North to “come against him,” and both for the holder of Palestine to resist them, and all mankind for “the Kings from the East, and of the whole world (the Roman), to gather together to a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon (Har-Magedon).”(Rev. 16: 12-16; Zech. 12: 11.)  That conflict will decide all questions for ever; and Israel redeemed, delivered and re-established in their own land, as the first “Righteous Nation” on earth (Isa. 26: 1-24; Rev. 15: 3-8), will be the solution long desired - the end of the “Warfare Great” - the bond and union-point of international amity, peace, and righteousness - all people one people, all nations one nation, all governments one government, all religions one religion, and “War no more!”  The nations will have had experience enough of this!  Then Jesus Christ will he recognised as the “Only Potentate,” “the King of kings and Lord of lords.” (Zech. 14: 9; Rev. 11: 15.)  And the terrible yet immortal battlefield on which that issue will be decided, and that result achieved, will be the Reservation the Most High chose as His own when, long before Abraham was, He divided to the nations their inheritance, and limited the boundaries of the peoples relatively to the land appointed for the twelve tribes of Israel. (Dent. 32: 8.)  Such, the importance of Palestine, the Jew, and the “Warfare Great,” for the triumph of the [millennial] kingdom of God.  From that early moment the “Eastern Question” became a necessity.  Its solution is before us.



*       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER TEN [Pages 120-138]




(Daniel, Chapter 12. – Conclusion of the Prophecy – Definition of the Time – Intervention of Michael – The Great Tribulation – The Deliverance of the Jews – The Resurrection of the Holy Dead – Splendour of the Risen Saints – Life Everlasting – Completion and Authentication of Daniel’s Book – Study of the Book in the “Time of the End” – The Epilogue – The Higher Criticism – Perplexity of Daniel – Its Solution – First Dismissal of the Prophet from the Scene – Extension of the “Time of the End” – The 1,290 and 1,335 Days – The Blessed Time – Second Dismissal of the Prophet – The Promise of the Prophet’s Resurrection – Christ, Glory, the Kingdom, the End – Our Hope.)





Then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.  And, except those days should be shortened, no flesh should be saved; but, for the elect s sake, those days shall be shortened.” (Matt. 24: 21, 22.)


Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father; who hath ears to hear, let him hear.” (Matt 13: 43.)


Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial that is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you.  But rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ’s sufferings, that when His glory is revealed, ye may be glad with exceeding joy.” (1 Pet. 4: 12, 13; 1: 7.)


When the Lord shall build up Zion, He shall appear in His glory.” (Ps. 102: 16.)  Appear to your joy.” (Isa. 66: 5.)


THY WORD IS TRUTH” (John 17: 17.)







1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.  2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.  3. And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever and ever.  4. But thou, 0 Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.  5. Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood another two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river.  6. And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?  7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished, 8. And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things?  9. And he said, Go thy way, Daniel; for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end.  10. Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly; and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand.  11. And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.  12. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.  13. But go thou thy way till the end be; for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days.”


Daniel’s twelfth chapter falls into three divisions: (1) the conclusion of the prophecy (12: 1-3); (2) the completion of the Book of Daniel (12: 4); (3) the Epilogue or closing Vision (12: 5-13).


1. THE CONCLUSION OF THE PROPHECY (12: 1-3) – These verses disclose in what way the constancy and faith of God’s people will be tried in the final crisis, by what means the Lord will separate converted Israel from their apostate brethren (Isa. 66: 5), and how he will break in pieces the oppressor and redeem from deceit and violence the souls of the poor and needy (Psa. 72: 4, 13, 14).  The fate of Israel and the world will not be decided by the diplomats and kings of Europe, Asia, and Africa, nor by the bankers of Antwerp, Berlin, Paris, London, or Vienna, but by the hand of God.  The doctrines of the “Balance of Power,” and the “Sceptre of Mammon,” will perish together.  It will be decided at Jerusalem by the Coming of the Son of Man.  The solution of what is called the EASTERN QUESTION requires a higher power than all the baffled sovereigns of the world, a solution only possible upon the overthrow of all the Gentile Powers themselves, of the corrupt forms of religion by which they are supported, of Anti-Christianity everywhere, and of Antichrist, the last leader of Satan’s kingdom on the earth.  Whatever power the Jews may have acquired by means of their wealth, influence and alliances, among the nations, in the last times, or in Palestine, will be unavailing here.  The struggle to gain their independence while in their unbelief will be signally defeated.  It is not by force of arms, alliances or wealth that Israel is delivered, but by the wonder-working power of God, when their own power is utterly annihilated. (Deut. 21: 36; Dan. 12: 7.)  This final act in behalf of the faithful is connected with the resurrection of the holy dead, awakened from their graves to meet and greet the delivered ones, and to shine as the sun and the stars in the [millennial] kingdom of God.  What we have here is-


(1) THE DEFINITION OF THETIME” of these events. –


It is “at that time” (Dan. 11: 40), when the Antichrist camps on Mount Moriah (11: 45), hence neither in the times of Antiochus, nor of Titus, since it is immediately followed by the “Great Tribulation” that next precedes the Second Coming of Christ. (Dan. 7: 13, 25; 12: 1-3, 7; Matt. 24: 15-29; 2 Thess. 1: 6, 7; 2: 1-12; Rev. 13: 5; 19: 11-21; 20: 1-6.)  It will be “such a tribulation as never was, no, nor ever shall be,” prior to the days immediately before His Second Coming.  The character of the time is faithfully delineated by our Lord as corresponding to Antediluvian and Sodomite times.  As it was in the days of Noah,” and of “Lot.” (Luke 17: 26-37.)  The Gospel will have gone as a testimony to all nations, and Christendom, the field full of Tares and Wheat, will be burdened with “scandals” to be “taken out” by the sickle of judgment. (Matt. 13: 41.)  Modern culture and civilisation will have done their best and worst, and amid Antichristianity, lawlessness, church-defection, and a world in war, Israel’s problem will demand solution.


(2) THE INTERVFNTION OF MICHAEL in behalf of Israel -


At that time, Michael, the great prince standing over the children of thy people (the Jews), shall stand firm.” (Daniel 12: 1.)  By Michael is not meant the “Angel of Jehovah,” nor “Jesus Christ,” but the guardian angel-prince of Israel, who with Gabriel exercises a protectorate over God’s ancient people.  He is the “archangel Michael” who contended for the body of Moses (Jude 9), and who, with Gabriel, “stood up” for Israel in the days of Cyrus and Darius the Mede.  Once more he “stands up,” “over,” and “firm for” converted Israel, “the holy people” (12: 7); “these my brethren” (Matt. 25: 40); “the 144,000” (Rev. 7: 4-8; 14: 1-5; 12: 10, 11; Isa. 66: 5), i.e., “the people of the Saints of the Most High” (7: 27).  Here again we have a glimpse into the angel world.  Satan is still the “god of this world” (age), and “prince of the power of the air,” and has the right even to “accuse[regenerate] believers before God, because of their sins. (Job. 2: 1‑5; Zech. 3: 1.)  The significant fact here is that when Michael stands up, at the time specified, Satan and his angels - till then allowed to roam the air - are “cast out” from their aerial spheres and dejected to the earth. (Rev. 12: 9.)  With this dejection of the Dragon the great tribulation begins at the middle of the 70th week. (Rev. 12: 1-11.) The battle of Michael and his host is, first of all, in the air, where Satan roams and sends his evil angels and his influence to sway the powers of the earth.  Then there is “War in Heaven,” i.e., in the aerial regions.  John describes it.  Michael and his angels fought against the Dragon; and the Dragon and his angels fought and prevailed not, neither was their place found any more in heaven.” (Rev. 12: 7, 8.)  They are cast down to rage on the earth a “short time,” viz., during the last three and a half years of the 70th week. (Rev. 12: 12; Matt. 24: 22.)  The conversion of some of the Jews, and the dejection of the Dragon, are simultaneous events, at the middle of the 70th week.  This overthrow of Satan in the air is the preliminary action on the skirmish line, as it were, the assault of the advance-guard on the outposts of Satan’s kingdom, viz., on “the hosts of the high ones on high.” (Isa. 24: 21.)  It is intended to clear the air from the evil angels, as being the region of the Rapture of the Saints at the Coming of Christ in the clouds of heaven.


But if the conflict is aerial it is also terrestrial.  The “War of the Great Day of God Almighty” includes “the kings of the earth on the earth,” as well as “the hosts of the high ones on high.” (Isa. 24: 21.)  Angels execute the “Harvest” and the “Vintage” orders. (Rev. 14: 12-20; Zech. 13: 8, 14: 5; Jude 15.)  Great, however, as is the help of Michael, the destruction of the Antichrist is reserved for Christ alone (Isa. 11: 4; 2. Thess. 2: 8; Isa. 59: 19, 20; Dan. 7: 13; Rev. 19: 11-21.)  There is right and propriety in this.  It is when the Lord himself appears in person to raise His saints, and smite the Antichrist, that the “Warfare Great” is terminated and Israel is delivered.  To Him belongs the victory, the kingdom, the power and the glory.




There shall be a time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation, even to that same time.” (Dan. 12: 1.)  It is that period of affliction described so graphically and so frequently in both Testaments, by Moses (Dent. 32: 39-43); by Balaam (Num. 24: 23, 24); by Isaiah (26: 8-21; 59: 16-21; 66: 5-16); by Jeremiah (30: 7); by Ezekiel (38: 1-23; 39: 1-29); by Joel (3: 9-16); by Zephaniah (3: 8); by Zechariah (12: 1-14; 13: 1; 14: 1-5); by our Lord (Matt. 25: 15, 28); by Paul (2 Thess. 1: 6, 7); and by John (Rev. 3: 10; 7: 14; 11: 7; 12: 12; 13: 1-18); covering the second half of the Apocalypse from chapter 12. to 20.  Here is found the formal condemnation of all the modern optimistic schemes, social theories, and wide-spread false teaching, that looks for the reform of the whole world and conversion of the nations before the Second Coming of Christ.  If we ask the Prophets, Christ and His Apostles, what they expected in the future, after the Gospel seed has been scattered over all the earth, their reply will be found to be one and harmonious.  By the side of the Wheat, Satan’s seed, the Tares, will occupy the field of the world “togethertill the Lord comes.  During the Times of the Gentiles Israel will remain in unbelief.  Along with the progress of Christianity, externally waxing to a power in the world, and allying itself with governments and states, shall go prosperity, internal corruption and decay, a deepening departure from the faith, as the last times draw near – Anti-christianity at last ascendant, the world controlling the Church, false teaching, false Messiahs, false culture and civilisation, crime universal, the faithful a “little flock” to whom it is “the Father’s good pleasure to give the kingdom.”  The great apostasy in Christendom shall culminate in the Antichrist, and bring the crisis of the “Warfare Great,” viz., the “Great Tribulation,” the world still “lying in the Wicked One.”  They looked for all this, and for the return of the Jews to their own land, their conversion in the midst of the crisis, and the Second Coming of Christ to put an end to the whole disorder and bring His kingdom of righteousness and truth to victory.  No other future than this is found in the Sacred Scriptures, save the Millennial Age and the final New Heaven and Earth, both of which follow the Advent of the Son of Man in clouds.  The triumph of the kingdom comes only to those who, faithful to Christ, pass through this Tribulation, and, sealed by His Spirit, are “overcomers” who have “gotten the victory over the Beast and his Image, his Mark and the Number of his Name,” even as before in early times. (Rev. 15: 2; 20: 4.) The unwritten in the Book of Life “worship the Beast” and perish in his punishment. (Rev. 13: 8.)  The conversion and reform of the whole world before the Second Advent is a human fiction, contradicted by both Testaments.


Territorially, these visions of the Great Tribulation which will be universal, especially cover Europe, Asia, and Africa, within the limits of the old Roman empire, yet Palestine is the centre of the drama.  For the Jews the Holy Land will be a furnace seven times hot, and a lion’s den.  As in Maccabaean days, they shall fall “by the sword, by flame, by captivity, and spoil.”  Tried the faithful will be, as were the first Christians, as were the martyrs in Papal times, as were the faithful Armenians in our own day.  Tried they will be by apostates of their own race who will cast them out (Isa. 66: 1-5; Rev. 11: 1-3), and by the Antichrist, doubly enraged because of the conversion of some of them on the one hand, and the effort of apostates on the other to gain the independence of Palestine.  Both of these events will be the cause of the Antichrist’s breach of his covenant, of his sitting in the Temple as God himself, demanding homage from all on pain of death for disobedience.  Tried they will be by the Rabbinism of the magnates among them, who seek to develop Judaism in opposition to Christianity, ejecting them from their fellowship, ostracised socially, destroyed commercially, persecuted personally, and, if scorning to be bribed, then betrayed, massacred, and left unburied in the streets - victims, not only of the sword of the Ottoman, but of the “Cherem,” or “curse,” of apostate Jews pronounced upon them. (Isa. 66: 5; Rev. 13: 7-10.)




Thy people shall be delivered,” i.e., at the close of the Great Tribulation (Dan. 12.; 7: 25-27; 9: 27) at the close of the 70th Week. (2 Thess. 2: 1-3.)  This promise of Deliverance of the “Remnant” is ancient as Moses, and runs through both Testaments.  Not exempted from trial, or even martyrdom, yet the “Remnant” shall not be destroyed.  Sealed of God, kept safe from the power of temptation, delivered out of all their troubles, as were their fathers before them, they shall be overcomers through the blood of the Lamb.  Alas, for that day is great, so great that none is like it; it is the time of Jacob’s trouble, but he shall be saved out of it.” (Jer. 30: 7.)


The deliverance will be miraculous, (1) by the personal appearing of the Son of Man, first of all, in the clouds of heaven. (Dan. 7: 13.)  (2) In the next place, “His feet shall stand on the Mount of Olives,” amid earthquake shocks, sundering the mountain. (Zech. 14: 10) (3) By the tripartition of the city previously, its fall of “one-tenth” of it, and the engulfment of “7,000 men of name,” the supporters of the Antichrist. (Rev. 2: 13.)  (4) By the destruction of the Antichrist and his hosts “outside the city.” (Rev. 14: 20; Dan. 9: 27;7: 26; 12: 7; 2 Thess. 2: 8; Rev. 19: 11.)  (5) And, as stated by the coming of the Lord to “Zion,” the last military station where the Antichrist encamped. (Dan. 11: 45.)  It will be an elect deliverance of “the holy, every one written among the living in Jerusalem.” (Isa. 4: 3.)  It will be a spiritual deliverance of Israel new-born and penitent, accepting Christ and trusting for pardon through His blood. (Zech. 13: 1; 12: 9-14; Ezek. 36: 24-29; Acts 3: 19-21, R.V.; Rom. 11: 26; Isa. 59: 20-21.)  It will be a political deliverance from subjection to the Gentile Powers, to restoration to long-lost sovereignty, and of an absolutely independent kingdom which no sword or diplomacy shall ever wrest from their possession - a kingdom in which Judah and Israel shall be one and undivided for ever (Zech. 12: 3; Ezek. 37: 22) - an Israelitish kingdom, the centre of Messiah’s [millennial] kingdom, wide as the world. (Luke 1: 32-33; 1: 70-74.)  It will be a jubilant deliverance, the ransomed of the Lord returning to Zionwith songs and everlasting joy upon their heads.” (Isa. 35: 10.)  It will he a deliverance, God-glorifying and irreversible.  They shall dwell in the land, even they and their children for ever,” (Ezek. 37: 25.)  God’s sanctuary among them, He their God and they His people - His Name “magnified among all nations.” (Ezek. 36: 27-28; 38: 23; 39: 27-29; Dan. 9: 24.)  If the tribulation is great, the deliverance is greater still.  It gives birth to the first time in history when God’s name is universally “hallowed” by the nations, and profanity expires - and when the will of God is “done on earth as it is in heaven.” (Rev. 15: 4.)  Of such importance is Israel for the kingdom of God.




Not Only shall living Israel’s election be delivered, but the holy dead be awakened to share the joy.  Decisive and clear are the words of the angel, “At that time,” when Israel is delivered, “many shall awake (literally, be separated) out from among the sleepers in the earth-dust; these (who awake at that time) shall be unto everlasting life, but those (who do not awake at that time) shall be unto shame and everlasting contempt, (Dan.12: 2).  The last-mentioned “those” include two classes, (1) the wicked, long-buried in the earth, (2) the slaughtered wicked, still unburied on the field, “an abhorrence to all flesh” (Isa. 66: 24; Rev. 19: 17-21; Ezek. 39: 11, 17-20).  A simultaneous resurrection of all mankind, good and bad, is nowhere taught in the Scriptures.  It is the resurrection of the holy that is here predicted, as in Isaiah 26: 19, and the non-resurrection of the wicked, “at that time.” (Isa. 26: 14.)  The resurrection here taught is the “First Resurrection” (Rev. 20: 3-6); that of the already spiritually raised (John 5:24, 25) that of “the just” (Luke 14: 14); the “out-resurrection” (Phil. 3: 11); the hour when Old and New testament saints are together “made perfect” in their communion and in the consummation of their blessedness, both awakened from their graves by the voice of the Son of God (Heb. 11: 35, 40).  No greater epoch has earth ever known.  Its time-point is given with the utmost precision in the Scriptures.  It is the time-point of the Second Advent for the salvation of the righteous and destruction of the wicked, even as at, the one time-point Noah and his family entered the Ark, and the ungodly perished in the Flood; and Israel was redeemed when Egypt was overwhelmed in the sea; and the Church fled to Pella when Jerusalem was destroyed.  It is a time-point for both Judgment and Salvation.  Asaph calls it the “shining” of the Lord. (Ps. 1. 1-6.)  Isaiah calls it His “appearing” (66: 5), in order to raise the holy dead, deliver Israel, destroy the Antichrist, and bring to victory the kingdom.  Five times in the Old Testament this illustrious Parousia of Christ is described as (1) the Coming of the Son of Man in the Clouds of Heaven (Dan. 7: 13); (2) of the Conqueror from Bozrah, descending over Edom (Isa. 63: 1-6); (3) of the Coming of the Lord to Olivet (Zech. 14: 5); (4) and to Zion (Isa. 59: 20); and (5) in clouds for both Judgment and Salvation (Ps. 1: 1-6; 96: 13; 97: 2-8; 98: 1-9; 110: 1‑7; 72: 2, 4, 9-14, 18, 19; 102: 13-17); (6) as the Coming to judge the World-Power (Rev. 6: 12-17); as His Coming under the Seventh Trumpet to vindicate the holy dead by their resurrection (Rev. 11: 15-17, 18); and to destroy Babylon (Rev. 16: 19); and the Antichrist (Rev. 19: 11-21); and to enthrone and reward His saints (Rev. 20: 1-6).  So great is this greatness of all time-points in the history of the world, when the Jews are restored, and Gentile politics and powers are destroyed, and the holy dead are awakened from their graves.


[*The Rev. Nathaniel West is here speaking in general terms of all the events that will happen at the general epoch of the Great Tribulation.  He does not enter into the particular details of the two stages of the Resurrection and Translation of saints which many other Expositors have explained more fully namely, that there will be a Resurrection and Translation of saints both before [Luke 21: 34-36; Rev. 3: 10] and after [1 Thess.4: 15] the Great Tribulation of three and a half years - EDITOR OF THE LONDON EDITION.]


To this time-point of the revelation of Christ in His glory, to raise the dead, deliver Israel, and destroy the antichrist, the hope of both Old and New Testament saints was directed. (Matt. 24: 29-31, 40-44; 2 Thess. 1: 6-10; 2: 1-8; 1 Thess. 4: 14-17; Rev. 11: 17; 14: 13-20; 19: 11-21; 20: 1-6; 16: 15; Dan. 12: 1-3; Matt. 13: 40.) In view of that hope, Old Testament martyrs, accounting themselves dead even before the tyrant had Struck them, refused to “accept deliverance” at the cost of forswearing their faith.


The New Testament martyrs did the same.  The “better thing” they grasped by faith was the “better resurrection,” when both, washed in the blood of Christ (Heb. 9: 15), should together he perfected, body and soul, in the likeness of Christ, at His Second Coming, and satisfied (Ps. 17: 15; 1: 3-6; Dan. 12: 1-3; Matt. 23: 40; 24: 29-31).  One in Christ, and one with each other, both saved in the same way.  God foresaw and provided the plan concerning us, “that they apart from us, should not be made perfect.” (Heb. 11: 35, 40.) Moses and Paul, Isaiah and John, are one in Christ.




They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that have turned the many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever” (Dan. 12: 3). The angel employs two words nowhere else found in the Old Testament (1) Hayi 0lam, life everlasting, i.e., to die no more, and (2) Hizhir, shall shine, from Zohar, splendour.  This last one is beautifully rendered by the German word Himmelglanz, the gleam of Heaven.  Moses describes the firmament as a “sapphire pavement” beneath the feet of the God of Israel, “the body of heaven in its clearness” (Ex. 34: 10), and Elihu compares it to a “molten mirror” shining with undimmed resplendency. (Job 37: 18.)  Ezekiel describes it as “an appearance of brightness as the look of the brightness of burnished gold.” (Ezek. 8: 2.)  To the golden sheen the angel adds the incandescent glory of the “stars,” literally of the “glitterers.”  Our Lord and Paul allude to these expressions in their brilliant language when speaking of the resurrection and its different degrees of glory. (Matt. 13: 43; 1 Cor. 15: 41.)  An instance of the reality, we have in the Transfiguration of the Lord in the “holy mount,” when “His face did shine as the Sun, and His raiment was white as the light” (Matt. 17: 21), “white as snow and glistering” (Mark 9: 3; Luke 9: 29).  What the angel teaches is that the wise shall shine like the crystal sheen of a sunlit firmament, and the converters of the many to righteousness shall glow with the glitter of the stars in a cloudless canopy.  Still more, their effulgence shall be eternal - a glory un-obscured for ever (Dan. 12: 3).  This their Zohar.  Degrees of glory there will be, even as the three stars in Orion’s belt excel in magnitude and glory the lesser stars of the constellation.  The transfiguration of the living will equal that of the dead.  The Lord extends the splendour to all the “righteous.” (Matt. 13: 40.)  The prophecy includes the whole sacramental host of God’s elect, who share the glory ready to be revealed.


All who are instrumental in the salvation of the many will be clothed with a surpassing brightness.  Eminent, the martyrs of Jesus will shine, saints who have not deemed as dear to them their lives, for Jesus’ sake. (Rev. 20: 4; 14: 13; 2 Thess. 1: 5; Heb. 11: 35-39; Rev. 12: 11; 2 Tim. 4: 6-8.)  Such the “out-resurrection.” (Phil. 3: 11.)  If a splendour so great and enduring, for the body alone - even to be glorified like Christ, whose brightness Paul tells us eclipsed the noon-day sun - is the reward of a Tribulation so brief, then indeed the sorest afflictions are but as the puncture of a pin, and the longest but as a moment - not worthy to be compared with the “far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.” (Rom. 8: 18.)  Earth never wore a diadem so royal as that composed of risen saints.  The eloquence of all antiquity, or modern times, has furnished no description equal to this conclusion of the prophecy; a scene so imposing, majestic and impressive; so sanctifying and sublime; so solemn and subduing!  We have seen the rainbow braided on the brow of the dying storm, but here a glory-crown of saints, the jewelled diadem of God, is placed upon the head of the dark Tribulation itself - a vision that can never vanish from the soul of the believer.  How quick the transit from the cross to the crown, from shame to honour, from suffering to glory!  The end of the “Warfare Great” is the outburst of an illumination which celebrates a victory for the Kingdom of God that is everlasting.  Time cannot dim its brightness.  Eternity will only enhance its greatness.




The great prophecy of Daniel is now ended.  The whole future has been disclosed to the Second Coming of Christ, and now the angel issues his order to the prophet. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words and seal the book, even to the time of the end” (Dan. 12: 4), i.e., (1) to the end of the third empire, and (2) to the end of the fourth.  By the “words” is meant the words of the last revelation just given - viz., chapters 10., 11., 12: 1-3.  By the “book,” the whole Book of Daniel, from first to last.  By “shut up the words” is meant, bind them with the rest of the parchments, as part of the book.  By “seal the book” is meant, attach to the roll the official seals of its authentication, and deposit the same in the archives of the Jewish nation, as part of Holy Scripture.  Preserve it for the warning and comfort of God’s people.  This does not mean that its contents shall remain inaccessible to the High Priest or to teachers of the people.  The order relates alone to the preservation of the original text. It was the custom of the prophets, before binding the separate parchments, to transcribe copies for the public use, from which still others were transcribed by official hands, under penalties for error.  Thus the Book of Daniel descended to the Jews, in a standard text, with which all copies could be compared as the near “Time of the End” approached.  The order of the angel implies no less than this, that Daniel was the author of the whole book, most of which was written during the exile, and its finisher in post-exilic times, during the Persian reign.




Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased” (Dan. 12: 4).  This explains the reason of the order.  A long period will intervene between now and then, and only then will the contents of the book be completely understood, therefore “seal the book,” that a sure and standard text may be preserved.  That it is studied to-day yet more than ever, is a sign of the nearing “Time of the End.”  By the words “run to and fro” is meant, not “modern locomotion,” nor “missionary enterprise,” nor “rushing here and there,” but the diligent perusal of the book with intensity and earnestness, by the method of turning forward and backward its pages, comparing prophecy with prophecy, in order to understand its contents.  The angel means that, as the “Time of the End” approaches, whether the near or far horizon, “multitudes” will devote themselves to a study of the book, and come to the “inner perception” (the knowledge) of its meaning.  Light will burst forth as Israel’s day draws near.  The definite article “the” before the word “knowledge” in the original text, is conclusive against the idea of modern locomotion and knowledge of every kind.  It means the knowledge of the prophecy.




With the termination of the order, what we have is –


(l) The sudden change of the scene; and not without some deep significance.  The Linen-clothed Man reappears, hovering over the Hiddekel, to which the name of the Nile – “Yeor” - is given, as if to remind Israel that hereafter, in the crisis, it shall be again as it was “in the day when he came out of Egypt.” (Isa. 11: 14-16; 19: 21-25; 27: 12, 13.)  Besides Gabriel and Michael, “two others” appear in the scene, one on this, the other on that side of the river.  Clearly, they are introduced as two witnesses of the oath about to be made by the Linen-clothed Man.  Expositors differ greatly as to who these “two others” or “after ones” are, whose names are purposely withheld, and whose position alone is indicated.  As angels, they are supposed to be (1) Michael and Gabriel - an impossibility, since they are expressly called “two others,” (2) as two of the holy watchers over Israel, but of rank subordinate; (3) as the “two” who afterwards appeared at the sepulchre of our Lord, and again, as sent from the ascension-cloud to comfort the apostles.  As men, they are supposed to he either (1) Enoch and Elias, or (2) Moses and Elias, foretold to appear at the time to which the vision here refers, therefore “the two witnesses of me,” of whom the Lord speaks as testifying to the Jews in the seventieth week (Rev. 11: 3), viz., the “two” who appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration (Luke 9: 30).  Most regard them as angels. The question still remains an open one.


(2) The dialogue between the Linen-clothed Man and one of the “two” - a conversation introduced for Daniel’s benefit.  One of the two” asks the Linen-clothed Man “How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?” (Dan. 12: 6), i.e., how long from the invasion of Palestine by the Antichrist (11: 40), to the Deliverance, and the Kingdom and Glory?  The twofold answer is (1) that “a time, two times, and a half a time,” 1,260 days, shall be the length of the time, and (2) that the end will be signalised by the fact that whatever “power” the Jews may have in the last days, it shall be broken, the Jews helpless in the hands of the Antichrist, with whom they make alliance.  Anti-semitism will wax to triumph among the “powers,” in spite of the counter movement to rehabilitate the Jewish state.  (Dent. 32: 36-44; Dan. 12: 7.)  Both hands uplifted to heaven, the Linen-clothed Man swears in the presence of the “other two,” and “by Him that liveth for ever,” that not one syllable of the prophecy shall fail, but that all shall be accomplished.  The last invasion of the Holy Land shall take place, the Great Tribulation shall come, the Jews shall be driven to the wall, Michael shall stand up, the holy dead shall be raised, Israel be delivered, and the Antichrist destroyed.  By the life of God, these things shall be so!  This is tremendous adjuration. (See Dent. 32: 40-43; Rev. 10: 5-7.)  It was not without intense significance the angel had said in Daniel 8: 26, that “the vision is truth;” in 10: 1, that “the word is truth;” in 10: 21, that Daniel’s book is a “Scripture of truth;” and declares in 11: 2,I will show thee the truth.”


And not without the same deep significance does he further admonish the prophet, yea, command him, to “close the words,” and “seal the books” (12: 4), and declares them “closed and sealed till the time of the end” (12: 9).  Yea, more, he crowns the whole with an oath, “by the living God,” - both hands held up - that “all these things shall be accomplished,” i.e., that none of them is fiction!  In the name of all that is sacred and solemn, why does the angel thus repeat himself, exhausting all sanctions, angelic, human and divine?  If the writer of the book is not a pious impostor, the whole book is true as God is true, and not a Maccabaean novel, as our modern higher critics would have it.  No other book in all the Bible, save John’s apocalypse, has such a weight of attestation. (Rev. 22: 18, 19.)  The “Vision” is “Truth,” the “Revelation,” the “Writing” of it, the very “words,” the “book” itself - all is “Truth,” God-sent, angel-given, Spirit-breathed, everlasting “Truth,” closed, scaled, authenticated and attested by angels, sworn to by the Lord Himself, and transmitted to our times to be studied with the intensest interest.  Had criticism any conscience or fear of God before its eyes, it would quail in the presence of such transcendent confirmation.  God the Almighty, thundering from heaven, could give no stronger demonstration of its verity.  It has the sanction of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, angels, prophets, Christ and His apostles, to its Chiliastic doctrine, and is established by no less than 2,500 years of human history.




I heard, but I understood not.  Then said I, O my Lord, and what shall the Afterness of these things be?” (Dan. 12: 8.)  What was it he did not understand?  Expressly, he declares, he “understands the vision” (10: 1).  What perplexed him was the definition of the time, given by the Linen-clothed Man in 12: 7.  His soul has been riveted upon the predicted persecution (11: 30-35); the tyrant’s character (11: 36-39), and the invasion of the Holy Land (11: 40-45).  Confident that the vision was “truth,” he leaves the mystery to God, and to the ages, to solve his perplexity, and only begs to know what the aafterness” of the 1, 260 shall be? - theafterness” of the “wonders” in 12: 1-13 - what shall follow the Resurrection and Israel’s deliverance?  It is one of our questions today.  Curious of the future, his pious interest would keep the angel talking for ever.  Let us remember that the prophets in Holy Scripture are not always “interpreters” of the visions they receive, or of what is given them to speak to others.  This is that in 2 Peter 1: 20, 21.  They are receivers, announcers, and searchers.  Angels, moreover, are not commentators on their own communications, but simply dictators.  The meaning of these prophecies was reserved to be developed by our Lord, Paul, and John, 600 years after.




Go thy way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed to the time of the end.” (12: 9.)  Tenderly the angel declines to protract the Revelation.  He recurs to the thought in Daniel 12: 4, expanding it.  Many shall be purified and made white, and tried, but the wicked shall do wickedly.  And none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand.” (12: 10.)  Two classes of persons there shall be in the Time of the End, the “wicked” and the “wise.”  The world will not all be converted to Christ.  Moreover, the wicked, in spite of the Day of the Lord, will continue to practise wickedness.  The tribulation that refines the saints will only incrustate the ungodly.  The fire that purifies the gold will only harden the clay.  For that reason the wicked will neither study nor understand the Book of Daniel, but the wise will do both. Clear to their “inner perception” will be the necessity of the tribulation to sift God’s saints from the world-loving and unbelieving professors of religion, and to test their fidelity.




And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away and an abomination that maketh desolate be set up, there shall be 1,290 days.  Blessed is he that waiteth and cometh to the 1,335 days.” (12: 11, 12.)  This much the angel concedes to Daniel’s further curiosity.  The italicised words here, and in the section above, are found also in Daniel 8: 12, 13, and 11: 31, 35.  Gabriel’s answer, in Daniel 12: 9-13, to Daniel’s question in 12: 8, is a word explaining something of the “afternessof the 1,260 days.  Moreover, the angel has already told Daniel, in 9: 27, that “a prince to come,” at the seventieth week would come “on wing of abomination,” after allowing to the Jews, by treaty, the practice of their “daily sacrifice,” and would break their covenant in the middle of the week.   The deeds typically performed by Antiochus would be repeated substantially yet in variant form by the last Antichrist.  An abomination would be set up, perhaps the image of the Antichrist himself. (Rev. 13: 14.)  The “Time of the End” would be extended first thirty, then to forty-five days more beyond the 1, 260.  Then the “blessed” time would come.*


[* That no “blessed” time, such as is here predicted for Israel, followed the “cleansing of the temple,” either 1,290 or 1,335 days after the act of Judas Maccabaeus, is evident from the Maccabaeans’ history.  The citadel remained in the hands of the foe.  Two whole years foreign armies, 100,000 strong, assaulted Jerusalem. Alliance with Rome became a necessity for Jewish protection.  Israel’s apostasy continued and culminated in the crucifixion of Christ, the second destruction of the temple, and dispersion of the nation.  The six-fold blessings in Daniel 9: 24 were never realised.] 


Ever more increasingly, the ablest interpreters regard the thirty days, following the 1,260, as the period of Judah’s national repentance (Zech. 12: 10-14; 13: 1), their baptism by the Holy Spirit, the turning of their mourning into joy, and the destruction of the last remainder of Gentile power.  The forty-five days, yet further, are regarded as the period of the return of the residue of the “dispersed” and the “outcasts,” brought back by Gentile hands after the Judgment-scenes at Jerusalem, and by those who shall have “escaped” from that catastrophe. (Isa. 66: 20; Zeph. 3: 10, 19, 20; Zech. 8: 20-23.)  Here comes the consecration of the wealth of the Gentiles, to rebuild, enlarge, and beautify the Holy City.  (Isa. 60: 18-22; 62: 1-12.)  This thecomfort” for Zion at the close of her long warfare, (Isa, 2: 1-4; Mica.  4: 1-4, 8, 13; Isa. 66: 10-14.)  Here belong “the times of the restoring of all things,” and “the seasons of refreshing,” fore-spoken by the prophets (Acts 3: 19-21.) (R.V.) the period of the six-fold blessing in Daniel 9: 24, the epoch of the complete reunion of all Israel in their own land, and their recognition, by the nations, as an independent kingdom, the local and sustaining centre of the millennial age.  It is the time of the new sunrise over Jerusalem.  Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord hath risen upon thee!” (Isa. 60: 1.)  Here belong the multitude of glowing prophecies in the Old Testament, concerning Israel’s latter-day glory.  Via crucis, via lucis!  Post tenebras lux!  It is the motto of all prophecy!


How “blessed” the time will be, and “blessed” the man who lives or wakes to see it, when the Lord will “appear in His glory and build up Zion,” “gathering the outcasts, healing the broken in heart, and binding their wounds,” only a pen dipped in prophetic fire can describe.  The angel pronounces a benediction and beatitude on the heirs of the kingdom, whom he calls “waiters” for it.  And myriads such there are to-day, notwithstanding “blindness in part has happened unto Israel.”  Hope springs eternal in the Hebrew breast.” There is for Zion a love tender and sacred in the heart of Israel, such as we Gentiles little feel.  Magnificent was the un-staggering faith of Sir Moses Monteflore: “I know it!  I am certain of it!  Palestine, the beauty-land, now desolate, shall yet be restored to Israel.  The Lord has spoken it!” Touching the words of Judah Hallevi, as he entered the city “Prostrate thou art, 0 Zion, but thy glory is for ever!  The Eternal has chosen thee.  We suffer for our sins, but the blessed time draws near when the Lord will appear in His glory. Blessed he who waits in faith to behold thy rising light!”  And tender and sweet, and enough to make the heart-strings of a Gentile vibrate, are the words of Judith Mendelsohn, as with tear-washed cheeks she uttered them when taking leave of the city: “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, forever!  Farewell, my loved Jerusalem! The fountain of our tears shall ever run in the current of our prayers and our thanksgiving.  Peace be within thy walls!  One day we shall meet again.  The ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion, with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads!”  What tenderness!  What faith!  What hope!  What love and devotion! Courage, oh Israel! The Lord will yet have mercy on thee - sinful, but not forsaken “Blessed be he that blesseth thee, and cursed be he that curseth thee!”


The time will come,” said David Kimchi, “when Jacob shall prosper and be redeemed and exalted, though now he is scattered and very low, and a wonder to the nations.  When the nations are gathered against Jerusalem, God will give to Israel the victory.”  So the renowned Rabbi Solomon Isaac: “The time will come when Jacob shall overcome the Horns of the nations that scattered him, and be exalted to dominion in the kingdom.”  So Aben Ezra teaches that “the Judgment in Daniel is the Judgment of the living nations when Israel shall be avenged, as Moses taught in Deuteronomy 32: 39-43, Zechariah 14: 1-5.  The nations will then believe what they do not now.  At last, they will recognise the truth that Israel shall see deliverance, a people smitten for their sins; they will say that the stroke fell on Israel for their benefit.”  So Abarbanel, saying, “God will not only give to Messiah but to Israel a portion with the great, even to Israel the, wealth of the nations that have afflicted him, and who will assail him in the last days.”  The Targum of Jonathan is no less explicit: “Israel shall see the kingdom of Messiah, and from subjection to the nations the Lord shall deliver him.  He shall see the punishment of his enemies, and be satisfied with the booty of kings.”  Nor will a greater day have ever greeted the nations than this, “when the Lord will take away the reproach of His people from off all the earth” (Isa. 25: 8), and “Israel shall blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit.” (Isa. 27: 6.)




Go thou thy way till the end shall be, for thou shalt rest.” (Dan. 12: 13.)  The lingering prophet, loth to leave, is again admonished to retire.  It is hard to part.  But “Go thou!”  The Glorious One who hovered over the Hiddekel has gone!  The “two others” are gone!  The vision fades.  Go thou thy way,” the way of the righteous.  Go till the end shall be” - the end of life, with all its cares – “for thou shalt rest” - a holy repose, entering into peace, thy body in its bed, the spirit [returned to God, the soul in “Paradise” (Luke 23: 43)] - “walking in uprightness before God” (Isaiah 57: 2.)  Rest [i.e., in ‘Sheol’ (Psa. 16: 10)] till the end of Israel’s weary way.  Finish thy Book.  Discharge what remains of the duties of life.   Dismiss all anxious thoughts.  Messiah will come, and though rejected, will come again and be accepted, Israel shall be saved with an everlasting salvation, never to be ashamed or confounded, world without end!  Be comforted, and “Go!”




Thou shalt stand in thy lot at the end of the days.” (Dan. 12: 13).  The transition from a reclining posture to one of standing, implies a resurrection.  By the term “lot” is meant the [inheritance] portion of the righteous.  The allusion here is to the redistribution of the Holy Land, as given by Daniel’s contemporary, Ezekiel.  Judah’s “portion,” to which tribe Daniel belonged, lies next to the “Holy Oblation,” near the sanctuary from whose threshold the “living waters” flow, and near the “portion of the Prince,” under the beams of the Shekinah-Cloud.  (Ezek. 57: 1, 48: 8; Isa. 4: 5, 6.)  By the “end of the days” is meant the end of the 1,335 - not the time-point of resurrection, but that of the enjoyment of the assigned reward.  There Daniel shall “stand” justified, sanctified, glorified, body and soul, a witness of the truth of his predictions.  So vanished the vision of the Hiddekel, as a tableau dissolves before the gaze of the beholder, and nothing remains of all that enchanted his eyes.  The prophet is left alone - yet not alone, for the sanctity and memory of that scene never faded from his heart.  He died in hope of the First Advent to atone for sin, and of the Resurrection at the Second Coming of Christ.  How blessed to him was life’s end!  How glorious the hope that pillowed his aged head!  His body rests to-day among the “sleepers in the dust of the earth,” at Shushan.  One day, when Jesus comes, he shall rise again, and shine in the glory!  May it be ours to share with him that blest transfiguration! His “lot” may not indeed be our “lot,” but if we are Christ’s, the glory though of different degree, shall be the same, for “we know that when Christ shall appear we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is!” (1 John 3: 2.)  This is “Our Hope.”



*       *       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER ELEVEN  [Pages 139-151.]





(Summation, Objections, Conclusion – General Teaching of Daniel’s Book – The Passing Away of all Kingdoms and Empires – Resume of the Main Features of Daniel’s Book – The Design of the Judgments of the Nations – God’s Name Sanctified, His Will done on Earth as in Heaven – Connection between Eschatology and the Messiah Doctrine – Objections to Daniel’s Doctrine – Reply – The Sequence of the Kingdom in Victory upon the Second Advent – Curiosities of Opposite View Character of the Millennial Kingdom – Reign of the Saints on the Earth – Jerusalem the Centre of the New Age – Christ Present in His Glory – The Kingdom of “The 1,000 Years” – The Vastness of the Idea of the Kingdom – False that the Kingdom of Christ is not Here Now – False that it comes to Victory before He comes – Science Demands a Millennial Age – Use and Abuse of Prophecy – Chiliasm Indestructible – Testimony of the Writer – Parting with the Prophet.)




The age of Gold, which a blind tradition has placed in the past, lies before us. But first a Phoenix death-birth, a Palingenesis.  Destruction and deliverance go together.  All things wax old and roll onward.  Judgment is inevitable.  A Millennium or reign of peace and wisdom having been prophesied of old, becomes more and more indubitable.  If our era is the era of unbelief, why murinur at it?  Is there not a better comming?  Thou art not alone if thou hast faith.  Hast thou a genuine love of truth?  Awake! speak forth what God hath given thee, and what the Devil shall not take away.  Higher priesthood than that for the truth has been allotted to no man.  Renounce the cavils that darken into doubt and then denial.  Face thou the light, since otherwise darkness is east upon thy sunshine, that darkness the shadow of thyself!”


                                                                                                     - Carlyle.






What the book of Daniel teaches is that, because of Israel’s apostasy, the Jewish state was overthrown and the sovereignty of the Hebrew people, whose great ancestor became “heir of the world through the righteousness of faith,” was passed by God’s decree to the four successive empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Graeco-Macedonia, and Rome, and to the several kingdoms into which the third and fourth of these should be divided; and signally so to the “Little Horn” of the fourth, yet to appear.  Thenceforward, during these “Times of the Gentiles,” the Jews should ever remain under the Gentile yoke, scattered among all nations, expatriated from their home, without an organised nationality, and only saved from their subjection at the Second Coming of Christ, upon their repentance and faith, and after sore tribulation.  Then, and only then, their lost sovereignty should revert, their kingdom be restored in glory greater than that of Solomon, and made the local and sustaining centre of the kingdom of Christ in victory “underneath all heavens.”  Thus, the ancient people of God, converted to a “holy people” in the highest spiritual sense, should be re-established in their old historical relations to the nations of the earth, and be as life from the dead to the world.


Many are the important lessons here taught; among them (1) the indestructibility of the Jewish race, as a separate un-amalgamated people, a “generation that shall not pass away;”  (2) the destructibility and transient character of all the empires and kingdoms of the world; (3) that during the Times of the Gentiles the triumph of the kingdom of God in righteousness and peace, underneath all heavens, is not to be expected; (4) that the restoration of the Jews and the re-establishment of the Jewish state [in lasting peace and safety] are not to be expected, until the Jewish people have been turned to faith in Jesus as the true Messiah, and resumed the central doctrines of their ancient creed, as taught in the prophets, and professed by the first disciples in the holy city; (5) that the time-point, or epoch of the final Jewish elevation is the time-point of the final destruction of all Gentile power, viz., the Second Coming of Christ.


One by one the prophet sees the ancient empires pass away, beginning with the empire of Babylon (Egypt and Assyria having been already overthrown).  Babylon endures B.C. 625 to 538, or eighty-seven years, and is overthrown by Cyrus; Medo-Persia continues B.C. 538 to 330, or two hundred and eight years, and is overthrown by Alexander; Graeco-Macedonia, united, then divided, B.C. 336 to 146, or one hundred and ninety years, and passes to the Roman power.  The Roman empire, founded by Augustus Caesar, B.C. 28, endures in its Western half to A.D. 476, or four hundred and ninety four years, and in its Eastern to A.D. 1453, both divisions becoming broken up into independent kingdoms and dependent states, changed by the sword of the conqueror, and existing in their different relations to the present day; each passing away, like those of Constantine and Theodosius, of Charlemagne and the Othos, of Louis and Napoleon - the Ottoman, with all the kingdoms of Europe, Asia, and Africa, foredoomed like the rest to retire from the scene that the kingdom of Christ may enter victoriously with Israel’s kingdom as the centre of the new age.  In vain we look for the triumph of truth, righteousness, and peace, public and private, in this present age.  The entrance of Christianity into history, not withstanding all the blessings it has brought, and the influence of its peerless and transforming power, has not changed the essential nature of the World Power, destroyed Sin, bound Satan, or brought to victory universal righteousness and peace.


The prophet beholds the conflict ever permanent until it culminates in the closing scenes of the “Warfare Great.”  He takes account of the kingdoms of this world masquerading in the costume of a nominal Christianity.  He sees no hope of the world’s deliverance from its evils, under such condition, during the “Times of the Gentiles.”  He has anticipated the fact that when Christianity should enter history and come to be the religion of princes and the state, in place of Paganism and the old idolatry, it would be adopted, politically, by the Fourth Empire, and its Powers, only to be made subservient to their temporal interests.  He foresaw that it would become a military Christianity, a force employed by rulers and legislators, as a means of subjugating nations to their sway, and that, under the pretence of giving the Religion of Christ and a better civilisation to the world, it would veil the rapacity and lust of nominally Christian Powers, seeking temporal dominion over the property and lives of men less powerful than themselves, and so “Christianise” the nations.


History has verified his foresight, and at no time more openly than now, in the standing armies, and the fleets, of the Christian world.  The “Horns” fight each other.  That militarism will prevail till Christ comes is the teaching of the prophet.  The Roman empire accepted Christianity, incorporated the Ten Commandments and the Sermon on the Mount in the Theodosian code, organised the “Christian Legions,” and began the work of “world-reform.” What followed, the student of history knows - the Middle Age, the Papal power, the Moslem holding the fairest portions of the earth once Christian, the politics of Europe, Asia and Africa, even now governed by the same motives that governed the ancient heathen empires.  The “Church” does not enter the field of the prophet’s vision.  He is the “Statesman” of Israel and the world.  He sees the whole future of Gentile world-power and of Jewish subjugation, and places his hope alone in the coming of Messiah.  That is his divine philosophy of history.  As for him in the prospect, so for us in the retrospect, the story of the struggle of the nations remains for ever the same,


Tis but the same rehearsal of the Past

First Freedom, and then Glory; when that fails,

Wealth, Vice, Corruption, Barbarism at last,

And history hath but one page.


The old empires have perished from the earth, and over their dull, dark sepulchres, Dead for want of righteousness, is read through the fog that dampens the grave of their glory.  Their monuments wake only the reflection that


Hardly the place of their antiquity,

Or note of those great monarchies we find,

Save in their dust, a verbal memory,

An empty name is left behind.


So shall it be with modern empires and kingdoms.  Passing away,” are the words the winds moan over their dying greatness.  Thoughtful men, and of schools the most opposite ‑ a Brandis, Hegel, Rawlinson, Maculay, von Mueller, Goldwin Smith and Sybel - how many more? - have recognised the law.  They vindicate the prophet’s view.  One kingdom alone is everlasting.


As to the nature of the communication made to Daniel, it was a Divine message, mediated by an angel, as was the later case with John, who, however, includes the “Church” in his apocalypse.  As to the form, it is an apocalypse, or “secret revealed” (Dan, 2: 18-19), an open unveiling of the future, by means of plastic images or symbols presented to the eye, with their Divine interpretation to the ear; a series of realities to be fulfilled in history, in order and succession.  As to its contents, they are Israel, the nations, the empires and kingdoms of the world, Messiah, and the kingdom of God in conflict till the final victory.  As to the time, it is the entire march of history from Nebuchadnezzar’s first year (Dan. 2: 1, B.C. 606), to the Second Coming of Christ.  As to the law of its presentation, it is that of advance to the end, retrogression to the beginning, advance again to the same end, retrogression again to the second empire, and advance again under more minute development, with always something new till the final vision is exhausted.  As to the End, it is the goal or limit of Gentile power over Israel, the final triumph of the kingdom of God underneath all heavens, in connection with Israel’s deliverance and the resurrection of the holy dead.  As to the Chronology, it is given in a scheme of seventy year-weeks, reaching to the Second Coming of Christ; with an interval of more than 18 centuries already between the 69th and and 70th weeks.  As to the political significance of it, for our times, it contains the whole “Eastern Question” in politics, and its final solution.  As to the Jewish aspect of it, it exalts the importance of the Jew for the final triumph of the kingdom of God on this present earth.  The Book opens with the victorious march of the World-Power, under Nebuchadnezzar, against the Jews, Jerusalem, and the Holy Land, and closes with the last war-march of the same Power under the last Anti-christ, against the same people, city, and land, ending in the eternal annihilation of the former, and the eternal triumph of the latter.  As to the sum of it, it is God's own Plan for the development of His kingdom, crowned with the. Second Coming of Christ.  Modern World-Reformers may here learn the wisdom of keeping their own theories to themselves, while doing all the good they can.


It must be borne in mind that the Vision of Judgment, in Daniel 7., is not that of all mankind, quick and dead, i.e., not the Last Judgment, but the Messianic Judgment of the nations, connected with Israel’s restoration, and the resurrection of the holy dead.  The Nations” are not annihilated, but the “Kingdoms” are, and become the kingdom of Christ, the nations still remaining.  (Dan. 7: 27; 2: 44).  The Sovereignty of the Gentiles is indeed taken away, but the “Nations” are saved, through the destruction of that sovereignty.  They survive the loss of their dynasties, recognise the supremacy of Israel, and the eternal sovereignty of Jesus Christ.  His kingdom comes, not only as a reign, but as a realm, wide as the world.  Here are seen the import and solemn grandeur of the advent, for the world, viz., that, whereas, at the First Advent only a few beheld the Son of Man, and in humiliation, now, “every eye shall see Him,” and in His glory.  Then, “All nations shall come and worship before Him.” (Rev. 15: 3, 4.)  The aim of the whole judgment is to “magnify and “sanctify God’s great name, “in the eyes of all nations.”


All the miracles recorded in the historical portions of the Book of Daniel, and the resulting “decrees” of Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, and Darius, were designed to be pledges of this.  All the predictions fore-announce the same result.  The Lord intends to smite the pride of all Gentile politics and power, and overturn all Gentile kingdoms, as in the days of old.  He means “to bring down the mean man, and humble the mighty and the eyes of the lofty,” so that “the Lord of Hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and God, the Holy One, be sanctified in righteousness.” (Isa. 5: 16.)  No Concert of the “Powers” can countervail this oracle, or stay His hand.  Thus,” says God, “I will I magnify myself, and sanctify myself, and I will be known in the eyes of many nations, and they shall know that I am the Lord.” (Ezek. 38: 23; 39: 25-29.)  On such texts did the mind of the Saviour rest, as on Daniel’s book, when teaching His disciples to pray, “Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven” (Matt. 6: 9, 10) - petitions that will never be fulfilled underneath all heavens till the Lord comes.


It is through judgment this great consummation is achieved.  It comes with the solution of the world’s greatest problem - that concerning the political condition of the ancient people of God.  Like all other prophets, Daniel, under the imagery of the ten Horns, foretells the final conflict through which Israel’s lost sovereignty shall be restored.  The conception of a great battle in which the assembled Gentile Powers shall be defeated at Jerusalem, in the end of the age, by the intervention of Israel’s own Messiah, is the conception everywhere from Moses to Malachi, and from Matthew to the Revelation by John.  The prophet Daniel represents it, under the sublimest and most terrific symbolism, as the closing act in the drama of the “Warfare Great.”  It is then, when the Cloud-Comer descends, all Gentile empires are broken as a potter’s vessel, and Israel’s kingdom rises on the ruins of them all.


If it is true that, in science, indestructibility of matter, persistence of force, and continuity of motion are essential axioms of development, and that the last impetus is from the heterogeneous back to the homogeneous, from diversity to unity, conflict to rest, through age-long transformations, these are no less true of history and the kingdom of God.  Long before science announced these, God’s Word revealed them, and built all prophecy upon them. (Heb. 11: 3; Acts 17: 26-28.)  It is to the crisis of the Second Advent the prophet looks when the world will change front and a new age heave into history.  The kingdom is indestructible, the force is persistent, the motion is continuous.  The result of the crisis will be the union of Jew and Gentile in the one kingdom of God on earth, discord giving way to peace, iniquity to righteousness, evil to good, and the breath of universal benevolence will salute all mankind.  God’s name will be “magnified” and “sanctified,” “the Name that is above every name,” be on the lips of all, and God’s will “be done on earth as it is in heaven.” To this “one event,” - not “far off,”‑ “the whole creation moves!”  The plan, the view, the process of becoming, the way, the end, are as “scientific” as they are Biblical.


If, therefore, we ask what the prophet Daniel has done, the answer is easy.  He has unveiled the plan of God, foretold the course of empire, and Israel’s way, down to the end of our present age, with a glorious kingdom following. As to the “Time of the End,” he has predicted - (1) the final tenfold subdivision of the territory of the fourth or Roman Empire; (2) the Interval between Christ’s First and Second Comings; (3) the last Antichrist; (4) his deeds and his destruction; (5) the wreck of all Gentile politics and power; (6) the conversion and restoration of the Jews; (7) the resurrection of the holy dead, and final triumph of the kingdom - all these in connection with the Second Coming of Christ.  This brief summation is sufficient.


Let it be remembered, then, that Christ’s millennial kingdom is an outward “realm” and “royalty,” as well as an inward rule of grace in the heart, and that in it are found “the kings of the earth,” and all “nations,” constructed under the sceptre of Christ, “the only Potentate,” “Kings of Kings and Lord of Lords.” The proud titles of the ancient monarchs, blazing on the monuments that tell their pride, He takes to Himself, and places their diadems upon His head.  The advent of Christ does not mean denationalisation.  The restoration of Israel’s kingdom does not mean a narrow Jewish particularism, but a universalism wide as the world, and of intensest spirituality, righteousness, truth, peace, and holiness.  Messiah's kingdom in victory is not His reign over an unorganised mass of spiritual humanity, without a nation or a government, but a kingdom where civil, social, political, municipal, and state relations, in public and private life, will find their highest satisfaction, and where science, art, literature, industry, capital and labour, and even sanitary regulations, will be governed by the letter and the spirit of His Gospel.


When the Roman empire came to Palestine, it came also to Spain, Gaul, the British Isles, the East, West, and civilised world. So, when the kingdom of Christ shall come in victory to the Holy Land, it will come to all nations.  Expressly, the reign of the saints is declared to be a “reign on the earth” (not over it). (Rev. 5: 10.) God’s will is “done on the earth.”  The saints “reign with Christ a thousand years.” (Rev. 20: 6.)  It is then “the Lord of Hosts shall reign in Mount Zion, even at Jerusalem, before His ancient ones, gloriously.” (Isa. 24: 23.) Once more, Jerusalem shall be the centre of attraction. (Isa. 2: 24; Mic. 4: 1, 2; Zech. 2: 11, 12; Rev. 20. 9.)  A Shekinah-Light will crown the city. (Isa. 4: 1-6,) “They shall call Jerusalem the throne of the Lord.” (Jer. 3: 17.)  In that day His resting-place” - here on the earth – “shall be glorious” (Isa. 11: 10), and “the place of His throne, and of the soles of His feet, and of His holy name,” shall be “holy.”  (Ezek. 43: 7.)  The city that was spiritually called “Sodom and Egypt” shall be called “Beulah, Hepzibah, a city sought out and not forsaken.” (Isa. 12: 4, 12.)  The name of the city, from that day, shall be called Jehovah Shammah, the Lord is there!” (Ezek. 48: 35; Isa. 59: 20; 60: 1, 10, 14, 15, 21; 62: 1-12.)  The spirituality of the kingdom is not destroyed by its terrene locality nor is there any evidence that the King is confined either to a throne in the heavens, or a throne on the earth.  His motion is free.  Glorified in His transfiguration, He moved among the un-glorified.  Risen from the dead, He showed Himself alive to His disciples.  Nor were they less spiritual because of His presence among them, “speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.” (Acts 1: 3.) Our duty is to dismiss all doubts, believe the Word of God, and give Him the glory.  To do this is an achievement in our present age.


Christ’s kingdom has many phases, forms, and spheres.  It is inner and spiritual; outer and material; moral and political.  It is individual and national.  It is earthly and heavenly.  It is temporal and eternal.  It is mixed and separate.  It is past, present, and, to come.  Circumstantially it is many.  Essentially it is one.  It is the administration of the rule of God in Christ over heaven, earth, and hell.  Its realisation, here, is the doing of the will of God on earth as it is in heaven.  Incomplete now, it is destined to perfection hereafter.  The thousand years” are but its future evolution, mediated by the Second Coming of Christ.  Its conflict now is the postulate of its triumph then.


The orderly succession of the ages and sequences of dispensations, in a grand march to ultimate perfection, is a law as absolute as in the cosmos and the kingdoms of nature and of history.  Evolution indeed, yet not without Divine intervention. (Acts 17: 26-28.)  The procession from the rude beginnings of inorganic being to the elementary forms of organised existence, thence more complex in vast unfoldings and transformations, mediated by catastrophe, and the introduction of new forces, is not more true in geology, astronomy, and biology, than in revelation, prophecy, and history.  The same law operates in all, that of “development.  A score of instances present themselves as illustrations of this law - the growth of the child, the growth of a plant, the growth of a civil constitution, the growth of a doctrine, the growth of a nation to its maturity and highest bloom.  What is changing and ephemeral in form passes away, while what is substantial, essential and enduring, moves onward and upward, through sunshine and storm ever in conflict, ever opposed, yet finally victorious, “So is the kingdom of God.”


Of the eternal ages before our present cosmic order, as of the eternal ages after the regenesis of the planet, we can only speak as “ages of ages,” infinitely backward and forward.  Between these lie the Biblical ages or dispensations, known to history, the antediluvian, the post-diluvian, the Mosaic, the Messianic age in conflict, the Messianic or Millennial age in victory, each of these characterised at its beginning by some self-revelation of Christ, pre-incarnate or incarnate.  The Ultimate Age” we call the “Endless Age,” only because the curtain of the future here drops, and the line of succession is concealed from view.  And yet it is “unto ages of ages, world without end, Amen!”  What cycles lie beyond!  How vast the contemplation! - the one great aim of all being the sanctification of God’s great name, the immortalisation of man, body and soul together, the glory of Christ, the perfection of the planet, “God all in all!”  Therefore, to blend in one historically what is seen oftentimes in one prophetically, is to misuse prophecy, annihilate both time and space, confound the ages and the ends, and disregard the clear distinction between them which later prophecy has made so plain.  It is to abuse, by our littleness and short-sightedness, what was meant, on the one hand, to enable us to grasp the total future as a unit, and on the other, to comprehend the ordered and majestic march of the kingdom through different stadia of development, from conflict to victory.  It is to lose that sublime conception of the apostle who says that “By faith we understand that the ages were articulated (to each other in succession), by the Word of God, so that the things which are seen did not become from the things that do appear.” (Heb. 11: 3.)  The forces and varying forms of all startled backward from the infinite past, and reach forward into the infinite future.  Herein lies the whole Biblical and scientific strength of the Chiliastic doctrine.


Therefore, at the close of a long life devoted to the study of God’s Word, and having prayed that He, who alone can open the eyes of the blind, would vouchsafe that mercy to me, as He did to Bartimaeus, and the two wanderers to Emmaus, do I desire to leave on record my unalterable conviction of the truth of the pre-millennial doctrine, a doctrine no other than this, that the Second Coming of Christ precedes the millennial kingdom “underneath all heavens” - a doctrine for which the prophet Daniel stood at the Babylonian and Persian courts, winning glory for God and honour for himself and his friends.  It is not that a man’s convictions are either the measure or the test of “Truth,” or his emotions a proof, that his creed is right.  The Holy Spirit often dwells in sanctifying power where he does not dwell as an illuminating power in the deep things of God, and time embalms the errors it does not destroy, and creeds are propagated from father to son.  But it is that the long, prayerful, and independent study of the truth - with a sincere desire to know it, and a heart honest enough to receive it - does bring with it a self-evidencing and self-interpreting light, by which the truth is sealed to the conscience in the sight of God, with a certitude transcending all conjectures, and superior to all the changes of human feeling - an “assurance of understanding” in the mystery of God.  It is that the truth, like its Author, is invincible.


The question is not what “views” do I hold, but what “views” hold me, and what their ground, and whence their origin?  In the words of Augustine, “it matters not what I say, what you say, what he says, but what saith the Scripture.”


Like the encircling concave mirrors of Archimedes, so placed as to flash their converging lights in front of them, so stand the books of the Bible - that effulgent focus, the glorious Second Coming of Christ.  He who fails to see it, only fails because his vision is perverted.  The insight of such truth is supplied alone by the “Spirit of Truth” who gave the sacred volume to be the light in all our seeing, and the comfort in all our searching.  And to the writings of no prophet have the Holy Spirit, the Lord and His apostles, borne greater witness than to the writings of “the prophet Daniel.”  If we fail here, it is because we do not use the Old Testament as they used it, cite it as they cited it, or believe it as they believed it.


Therefore do I deem it loyal to the Truth to testify that in Daniel 2: 44: 7: 27: and in Revelations 20: 1-6, lies the bottom, bedrock, basis, and formal statement of the pre-millennial doctrine, more deep, massive, and enduring than the granite foundations of the earth - not to speak of many other texts.  I deem it “Truth” to affirm that such is the organic connection of both Testaments, and the dependence of the New upon the Old, that the sequence of the kingdom upon the Second Advent, in Daniel 7., for the Beast’s destruction, determines for ever that the scene of the cloud-seated Son of Man in Revelations 14., and of the Warrior on the White Horse in 19., are no other than the same as that of the Cloud-Comer in Daniel 7.; and therefore the Second Coming of Christ is pre-millennial.  Heaven and earth shall pass away, but this connection, dependence, sequence and identity, shall not pass away.  God’s throne is not more firmly established.  The almightiness and everlastingness of God’s Word are here.  Monumental brass, marble, and adamant will wear away, corroded by the tooth of time.  The solid masonry of men, the rocks on which man’s mightiest architecture has reposed, will become as the shifting sands, and his proudest structure crumble into dust.  But this “Truth” shall stand for ever.


Time writes no wrinkle on its brow.”


The “Hope” it whispers has been tested on the plains of Dura, in the fiery furnace and the lion’s den, in Maccabaean caves, the amphitheatre at Rome, the dungeons of Patmos, the recesses of the Cottian Alps, the Armenian mountains, and wherever the blood of the martyrs of Jesus has been shed.  Wreathed with the memories of Olivet it looks to Olivet in days to come.  Twice ten centuries and a half it has been the one bright star that has shone through the gloom of Israel’s long night of suffering and expatriation; and now that the brows of the morning are purpling with the tokens of coming day, it beats in Israel’s breast with a redoubled pulse.  The present age hates it.  The self-deluded admirers of human progress turn their back upon it. Sociologists deride it.  World-reformers make light of it.  The Church treats it with indifference, and oftentimes with opposition.  Many good men, from motives of policy, avoid it, unable to refute it.  It is not popular with the optimism of a false theology and a blooming Anti-Christianity.  But in multitudes of hearts it finds a home, and is welcomed as nothing less than the imperishable truth of God.


And this I can truthfully and intelligently say, with eyes resting on the history of the Church for eighteen centuries, giving full credit to all that Christianity has done for the world, in the gift of civil and religious liberty, the abolition of gigantic evils, the propagation of the blessed Gospel, in the institution of her immortal charities, and in the education of what the Early Church believed, and how the doctrine came to be corrupted, and by what devices she was persuaded to revolutionise the faith of that “cloud of witnesses” who were the spectators of her early warfare, and versed in the vain attempts to set aside her testimony; and with perfect understanding of all that creeds, councils and polemists have formulated, and how ancient and modern sects have nobly but imperfectly expressed their judgment, and how false teachers have made use of it, and true teachers have been misled, and what dogmatics have objected, and what criticism has to offer, and, better still, what a thorough exegesis has so triumphantly established in the study of both Testaments - in view of all, and of my account, I desire to utter this confession, that the doctrine that the kingdom of Christ cannot come to victory “underneath all heavens,” till the Lord Himself comes, is the very “Truth” of God.  That great and “Blessed Hope,” is our hope, that “Faith” is our faith, as it was the faith and hope of all the prophets, of Jesus Christ, and his apostles.  It is the only “Hope” of victory for the church, Israel, the nations, and a groaning world.



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DANIEL 9: 24-27, is the seat and source - the fons et origo - of all the prophetic numbers in both Testaments concerning the “End.”  Each week is seven years, prophetic time.  The “One Week” (Dan. 9: 27) is the last of the 70 weeks, and is therefore seven years. The middle of the week, when the “abomination is set up, reappears in our Lord’s Olivet Discourse (Matt. 4: 15), and is furthermore prominent as the time-point when Israel’s conversion is announced and the Dragon is dejected (Rev. 12: 10-12), and is the beginning of the Great Tribulation (Rev. 13: 5; Dan. 7: 25; 12: 7; Matt 24: 15).  The second “Half” of this “One Week,” or three - and-a-half years, is expressed in various ways, yet all commensurate: (1) As “a time, two times (dual number) and the dividing of a time” (Dan. 7: 25; 12: 7; Rev. 12: 14), a “time” being a prophetic or soli-lunar year of 360 days everywhere in Daniel’s book, as when it is said of Nebuchadnezzar that “seven times shall pass over him” (4: 3), i.e., three-and-a-half “times” are a half-week, as “seven times” are one week.  (2) At the “shortened days” in Matthew 24: 21, 22. (3)  As a “short time,” in Revelations 12: 12.  (4) As forty-two months (Rev. 11: 2; 12: 5). (5) As the l,260days of the sheltered woman (Rev. 12: 6) identical with her “time, times and a half” (Rev. 12: 14).



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B.C. 603.  Nebuchadnezzar’s first testimony.  Daniel 18 years old. (Dan. 2: 46-49.)


B.C. 598. Ezekiel’s first testimony.  Daniel 23 years old. (Ezek. 28: 3.)


B.C. 555.  Nebuchadnezzar’s second testimony.  Daniel 63 years old. (Dan. 4: 8, 9, 18)


B.C. 538. Gabriel’s first testimony.  (Dan. 9: 21-23; 5: 13, 14, 16, 29.)


B.C. 538. Darius the Mode’s testimony.  Daniel 83 years old.  (Dan. 6: 2, 3, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24-28)


B.C. 538. Testimony of the Satraps.  Daniel 83 years old. (Dan. 6: 5)


B.C. 536. Nitoeris, the Queen Mother’s testimony.  Daniel 85 years old.


B.C. 536. Belshazzar’s testimony.  Daniel 85 years old. (Dan. 5: 13-16.)


B.C. 534. Gabriel’s second testimony.  Daniel 87 years old. (Dan. 10: 10, 11, 19)


B.C. 538-534. Self-testimony of Daniel.  Daniel 83 to 87 years old.  (Dan. 7: 1, 28; 8: 1, 27; 9: 2; 12: 4, 8.)


B.C. 518. Zechariah’s testimony to the knowledge and influence of Daniel’s book: (1) In the “Stone” as Messiah (Zech. 3: 9; Dan. 2: 45).  (2) In the “four horns” as symbols of world-power (Zech. 1: 18-21; Dan. 7: 7, 13).  (4) In the Deliverance of the Jews at the Advent and the setting up of the kingdom (Zech. 12: 11; Dan. 12: 1; Zech. 24: 9; Dan. 2: 44; 7: 27).  This more than 300 years before the Maccabwan times.


B.C. 468.  Ezra’s testimony to its influence.  Daniel’s prayer a model. (Ezra 9: 5-7; Dan. 9: 4-8.)  300 years before the Maccabees.


B.C. 455. Nehemiah’s testimony.  The Prayer. (Neh. 1: 5; 9: 32; Dan. 9: 8; Neh. 9: 12.)  287 years before the Maccabees.


B.C. 333. Baruch’s testimony in the Persian period.  The Prayer. (Baruch 1: 15-22; 2: 1-15; Dan. 11: 7-10, 12, 13.)  160 years before the Maccabees.


B.C. 332. The testimony of Josephus to the exhibition, 332, by Jaddua, the High Priest, of Daniel’s prophecy of the Rough Goat to Alexander the Great. (Josephus, Antiq. 11: 8, 7.)  On the other hand, Zockler’s Daniel in Lange, Introd. 25.  This 160 years before the Maccabees.


B.C. 250. Testimony of the Septuagint - begun B.C. 281, finished 247 - to Daniel’s whole book.  86 years before the Maccabees.


B.C. 170. Testimony of the Sibylline Oracles (Book 3. 396, 613), and passim, to expression borrowed from the Greek version of Daniel.  Two years before Maccabaean persecution.


B.C. 168. Testimony of Mattathias, father of Judas Maccabaeus, to Daniel and his companions. (1 Macc. 2: 60.)  This three years before B.C. 164, when the critics say Daniel’s book was composed.  (See Zoekler in Lange, Daniel, Introd., 24, 25)


B.C. 168.  Testimony of the expression “Abomination of Desolation” applied, from Daniel’s book, to the idolator of Antiochus, three years before the critics’ date of the book, and other expressions.  (1 Mace. 1: 54; Dan. 8: 11)


B.C. 132. Testimony of Ecclesiasticus 35: 18-20; 36: 1-16; Dan. 2: 35, 45; 7: 25; 12: 7.


A.D. 33. Testimony of Jesus Christ, passim, the title “Son of Man,” “Coming in Clouds,” the “Shortened Days,” the “Great Tribulation,” the “Abomination of Desolation,” the “Resurrection,” thoSplendour” of the righteous, the “Times of the Gentiles” – “unto the End.” (Luke 21: 24; Dan. 9: 26.)  Daniel the Prophet” (Matt. 24: 15; 26: 64; 24: 4-31); the Deliverance of Israel and Judgment of the Nations, the Kingdom (Matt. 35: 31-46; Dan. 2., 7., 9., 12.).


A.D. 53. First testimony of Paul. (2 Thess. 2: 4-8; Dan. 8: 12; 11: 36; 2 Thess. 1: 6-10; 1 Thess. 4: 17; Dan. 7: 13; 12: 1-3)  (See Matthew 24: 29-31.)


A.D. 66. Second testimony of Paul. (Heb. 11: 33-38; Dan. 3: 25; 6: 22; 11: 33-35)


A.D. 67. Peter’s testimony. (1 Pet. 1: 10-12; Dan. 9: 2; 12:  6-12).


AD. 75. Testimony of Josephus. (Antiq. 10: 11, 14; 11: 8; 12: 7)


A.D. 95. Testimony of John, in the Apocalypse - passim,  Behold, He comes in clouds,” the “Beast,” the “Horns,” the Antichrist, the “Great Tribulation,” the “Conversion of the Jews,” the “Resurrection,” the “Deliverance of the Jews,” the “Judgment of the Nations,” the “Kingdom.”



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To Daniel we are indebted for the formula, “Times and Seasons,” which occurs so frequently in the Old and New Testaments, since his interpretation of the drearn of the Chaldean king.  In the Chaldee dialect he calls them “Iddanayya” and “Zimnayya,” translated in the Septuagint, Theodotion and the New Testament, as the “Chronoi” and “Kairoi appointed of God.  Thus, of God, Most High, the prophet says He changeth “Iddanayya ve‑Zimnayya,” and “removes and sets up kings; He giveth wisdom to the wise and knowledge to, them that know understanding.”  In Daniel 4: 25, “Seven Iddanin pass over Nebuchadnezzar, each “Iddan a year.  In 7: 25, the period of the Great Tribulation is divided into three periods of “a Time, two Times and the division of a Time” – “Iddan, Iddanin, Uphlag Iddan,” i.e., three-and-a-half years, or the “Half-Week” in Dan. 9: 2, 7, and 12: 7.  In 7: 7, the lives of the Beasts are prolonged a “Season” and a “Time,” a “Zeman” and an “Iddan.”  In the Hebrew dialect the formula is “Mo’adh, Mo’adh, ve‑Khetsi” (12: 7), a Time, Times and a Half.”  With direct reference to these expressions, our Lord, in the New Testament, speaks of the whole period of the subjection of the Jews to Gentile power as the “Times of the Gentiles” - the period from the Babylonish Exile to the Second Coming of Christ, and particularly from the Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. (Luke 21: 21.)


It is from Daniel the whole terminology and periodology of prophecy in the New Testament come.  He is the father of it all.  Solemn “Times and Seasons” there have been in the past, are now, and will be again, and to these our study is divinely directed.  Therefore, in view of all, has “Daniel the Prophet” acquired for himself the enviable title “Father of Universal History.  By means of his predictions we are not left in ignorance of the end of our present age, nor of the way to it.  How far we have come, what lies behind us, what is before us, and, in general, how approximately near we are to the end, is here revealed.  The “Times and Seasons” represent the political and religious periods, ages, centuries, epochs and crises of world-history and of the development of the kingdom of God on earth.  Of such “Times” or “Iddanayya,” appointed of God, were the Patriarchal times, the four hundred and thirty years’ sojourn in Egypt, the forty years’ wandering, the period of the Judges, the four hundred and ninety years’ monarchy, the seventy years’ captivity and the seventy weeks’ prophecy.  Of such Seasonswere Abraham’s call, the descent into Egypt, the Exodus, the building of the first Temple, the disruption of the Kingdom, the going in and return from exile, the building of the second Temple, the First Advent of Christ, the Day of the Crucifixion, Pentecost, the second destruction of Jerusalem. “Times and Seasons” represent the vicissitudes of kingdoms and nations and of the people of God in all their history, and look to the final “Times and Seasons” when the sure word of Prophecy shall he fulfilled.  They signify the fact that the whole course of history has been mapped out according to a Divine plan, and that the ages and ends, the periods and epochs, were determined, whether definite or indefinite, long or short, as the will of God dictated, and that, thus arranged, the whole was revealed to Daniel.


The profoundest writers have not been slow to recognise this great truth.  The “Scheme of the Four Empires” and the kingdoms sprung from them, with the entire pathway of Israel to the end - the whole theological conception of history - was regarded as a divinely revealed outlook for the future and ruled the Christian Church, from the beginning to the rise of Rationalism in the seventeenth century.  The great historians Gatterer, von Mueller, Schlosser, all adhered to the four empired view of the world’s development, in its relation to the Jewish people.  Against all Rationalism the view held its ground, that Israel is the centre of all history by Divine appointment, and that the destiny of Israel decides the destiny of the nations.  The importance of Daniel’s view still asserts itself, since it is from this view alone we learn that the Fourth Prophetic Empire, the Roman, though wounded, is still existing, and will exist, revived, before Christ comes. Luther was perfectly right in believing from Daniel’s book that “the Fourth Empire must remain till the last day.”  In like manner, Orelli truly says, “The Colossus still stands.”


The four-empired view has a charmed life.  In John’s Apocalypse his RomanEmpire, described as a ten-hornedwildbeast, is the legs and feet of the Colossus.  Augustine, Orosius, Vice, Bossuet, all recognised it as the only true guide for the historian.  It was the accepted frame of universal history all through the Middle Ages.  It was the soul of the “Chronicon” of John Carion, worked over and edited by Melanchthon, 1532, and again issued, enlarged and improved by Melancthon, in 1556.  No work ever exercised a greater influence during the Reformation of the sixteenth century than the great work of Sleidan, “De Quatuor Monarchiis,” no less than seventy editions of which were called for and sold.  Bodin’sMethod for the Comprehension of Universal History,” 1566, followed in the steps of Sleidan, and in 1672 Kober, in his “Dissertation,” could still ask, “Who that writes history and chronology to-day stops short of the Four Empires as the goal of his endeavour?”  The view of Daniel holds its ground among all believing writers on the world’s progress and destiny.  The supreme importance of the “Scheme of the Four Empires” lies in this, that it is a Divine Apocalypse of the future, a telescope that penetrates through the entire vista of world-history, and brings to view the end of our age in the most vivid colours, and in symbols the most gorgeous and terrific.  It is a light for the “Times of the Gentiles,” for Israel and the Church, revealing the government of God over all history, and supporting the hope of the believer as no unprophetic history could do.  It looks to a “Fulness of the Gentiles,” and of the “Times of the Gentiles,” a “Fulness of Israel,” the overthrow of all anti-Christianity, all Gentile politics and power, and the victory of the kingdom at the Coming of Christ.  The New Testarnent simply unveils still more than the Old the events connected with the development of the Fourth Empire.  We cannot do without it. A Mueller, Brandis, Baumgarten in his splendid volumes on the Acts of the Apostles, Luthardt in his “Doctrine of the Last Things,” Tiefenthal in his recent work on “Daniel,” Dusterwald in his “End-Time Kingdom,” D’Envieu, in his immense four-volumed work on “Daniel the Prophet,” in fact, all expositors of Daniel, save the Rationalists, are a loud concert of praise to the grandeur and truth of its representations and its world-wide significance.



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The prophet Daniel spreads before us the entire times of the Gentiles, Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Graeco-Macedonian and Roman, with the kingdoms sprung from the third and fourth empires, from B.C. 606 to the Second Coming of Christ.  As the Fourth Empire, the Roman, he predicts the Crucifixion of Christ; the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, A.D. 70.; the Great Interval of the Roman times of the Gentiles to the future 70th week and the 70th week itself.  He thus covers the whole time between the First and Second Advents. (Dan. 9: 24-27.)


Our Lord, in Matthew 24., 25., and in Mark 13. and Luke 21., resumes all this, and, building on Daniel, enlarges the prophecy, assigning the Church to her place alongside of Israel, the one carrying the Gospel to the nations, the other remaining in unbelief during the Interval.  The period of thirty-three and a half years from His birth to His crucifixion lay behind Him when He uttered His discourse.  The whole period from His death to His Second Coming stood before Him.  He characterises the Roman “Times of the Gentiles” as the period of Israel’s rejection and the crossbearing of the Church: a period for the development of the World-Power, false Christs, war, missions, persecution, famines, pestilence, apostacy; all manner of calamities.  To paint in, here, a millennial age of universal righteousness and peace is an impossibility.  There is no room for it.  The Lord has positively excluded it.


The Apostle John, in his Apocalypse, building both on the Olivet discourse and Daniel’s prophecy, as well as on other prophecies, gives us, again, the same Interval of the Roman Times of the Gentiles and the 70th week, with the Church, Israel, the World-Power or kingdoms of this world and the kingdom of God.  He separates artistically all the events of the future in outline, and, with lucidity of exposition and perfect symmetry of arrangement, foreshows the whole course of the Church and of the World-Power in four great series or groups of sevens, viz., the seven Epistles to the Asiatic churches, the seven seals, the seven trumpets, the seven vials, with an episode, or pause-vision, between the sixth and seventh places in each series - each series ending with the Day of the Lord and the Second Coming of the Lord; the Theme of his book, announced in Revelations 1: 7, “Behold, He cometh with clouds!”


The seven Epistles unfold the great interval of the Roman times of the Gentiles on its ecclesiastical side, giving in separate letters to the Churches the different phases of Christianity in the first century, all typical of the different phases of Christendom till the Lord comes.  They represent the Church development and the doom of its last prevailing form, even to be “spued out” of the Lord’s mouth.  The seven seals cover the same interval, and give us the civil and political side of the same period, the development of the World-Power, proceeding from a state of temporary peace near John’s time, going forth externally, “conquering and to conquer” through scenes of bloodshed and woe, and also the hostility of the World-Power towards the Church, her martyrdom and the doom of the World-Power itself at the Second Coming of Christ.  The seven trumpets, again, yet covering a large part of the same interval, give the judgments of God upon an apostatising Christendom, while still the work of missions continues, and, after the conversion of Israel, ending with the overthrow of the kingdoms of this world, their conversion to Christ, and the victory of the kingdom of God at the Second Coming of Christ.  The seven vials, entering last of all, are the judgments under the seventh trumpet, and run on to the same end; judgments especially quick and intense on the Antichrist and his kingdom during the Great Tribulation.


The characters in this great “Drama of the End” are (1) the scaled 144,000 ; the sun-clothed woman, whose history at both Advents is given; (2) the Dragon dressed in the uniform of the Roman empire; (3) the Roman Beast and the false prophet, his whole history, pagan, papal, infidel, given in the symbols; (4) the false Church, the harlot and her daughters, everywhere; (5) the true Church, or suffering saints of God, whose patience and faith are tried; (6) the personal Antichrist, or “eighth head”; (7) the worshipperss of the Antichrist; (8) the ten horns or kingdoms springing from the Roman empire; (9) Isracl’s martyrs in Heaven by the glassy sea; (10) God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, angels and demons.


As to the progress or development of the Apocalypse, chapter 1. is the general introduction with the fundamental vision of the whole book, the Christophany, the commission to write an explanation of the vision. Chapters 2. and 3. are the seven Epistles to the Churches.  Chapters 4. and 5. are the scenes in Heaven at the Ascension of Christ to His Father’s throne, the delegation to Him, formally, of all power by the gift of the seven-sealed Book of the future amidst a universal jubilee.  On this follows the opening of six seals in chapter 6.  Between the sixth and seventh seal is the episode, or pause-vision, given for comfort to the Church, and in contrast with the awful scenes in the seals preceding.  Chapters 8. and 9. resume the progress and give six trumpet-visions.  Again, between the sixth and seventh trumpet comes the next episode, in Chapters 10. and 11., where the Rainbow-Angel (Christ) gives the open “Little Book,” containing Israel’s fortunes in the time of the end, into the hands of John, whose commission to “prophesy again” is executed by the Two Witnesses. Here enters the 70th week, as given in Daniel, only more largely filled out with the Antichrist and scenes in Jerusalem under the, Anti-christ.  In Revelations 12. we have the Church of the “Time of the End”; Michael standing up as in Daniel.  Chapter 13. is the Great Tribulation.  Chapter 14. gives the call of the Gospel to the nations, the last warning to all apostates, the climax of the Tribulation, the Harvest and the Vintage at the Second Coming of Christ.  In 15. we have a special introduction to the vials, Israel’s martyrs in heaven preluding the victory of the kingdom of God and the universal conversion of the nations.  In 16. the seven vials pour the seven last plagues upon the Antichrist and his kingdom, finishing the mystery of God, and bringing in the kingdom of God in victory, amid cosmic convulsions and judgments unknown before.  The Episode between the sixth and seventh vials so rapidly affused, is the brief word in Revelations 16: 15-16. announcing the near, imminent and impending Advent of the Lord for His saints at the,thief-time,” and repeating the admonition, given by Himself previously to the Church in Matthew 24: 42‑44, “Behold I come as a thief! Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments lest he walk naked and they [the Antichristian worshippers] see his shame.”  It is the time of the gathering at Armageddon, Antichrist gathering his host, Christ gathering His own.


Chapters 17. and 18. are explanatory of Babylon and the Beast, i.e., apostate Christendom, and its relations in the last time, and paint in drastic colours the fall of Rome.  Chapter 19. brings the loud “Hallelujahs” and the announcement that the time for the marriage of the Lamb has come.  The same chapter gives us again the Second Advent and the destruction of the Antichrist at Jerusalem, as at the close of 14.  Chapter 20: 1-6, gives us the binding of Satan and resumes the Resurrection, given in 11. and implied in 14., in order to associate the same with the kingdom of the 1,000 years.  All that Joel, Isaiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, and Zechariah have spoken concerning the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the Mount of Olives, Zion, Jerusalem and Israel, the Antichrist and the nations in the last crisis is here involved.  John expressly adds Rome, Armageddon and Jerusalem.  As in Daniel, so in John’s apocalypse, the two cities around which the whole Revelation revolves are Jerusalem, and Rome the capital of the fourth Empire.  John expressly emphasises Rome, Jerusalem, Armageddon and the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which he calls the “winepress outside the city.”  As in the beginning of the Christian age, Jerusalem fell and Rome arose to be the central city of Christian age for 1,000 years, so at the end of our age Rome shall fall and Jerusalemarise” and “shine,” the central city of the millennial age.  How completely the roles are reversed in the providence of God!


Daniel’s prophecy of the Fourth Empire furnishes the ground lines for both, the frame into which both are set. Daniel’s fourth Roman Ten-horned Beast is John’s Ten-horned Beast.  The Ten Horns in Daniel are the Ten Horns in John.  The “Little Horn” in Daniel 7. is the personal Beast who ascends from the abyss of John. Paul’s “Man of Sin,” “the Antichrist,” “the prince to come” in Daniel 9: 27, “the king” in 11: 36, 40-45, the Beast in Revelations 13: 5; 11: 7, and  18: 8; the “eighth head” in 17: 11, the personal Antichrist being the whole Beast itself, in whom the whole Anti-christian empire in Europe, Asia and Africa is centred in the last times.


The 70th week in Daniel 9: 27 is the 70th week in Revelations 11: 2, 3, 7. The 1,260 days of Great Tribulation are the “shortened days” in Matthew 24: 21, 22, and “short time” in Revelations 12: 12.  Michael standing up in Daniel 12: 1, is Michael standing up in Revelations 12: 6.


The Son of Man coming in the clouds, Daniel 7: 13, is the Son of Man in the clouds, Revelations 1: 7, and 14: 14, and in Matthew 24: 29-31.  The resurrection of the holy dead, Daniel 12: 2, 3, is the resurrection in Matthew 24: 30-31.  The reaping of the living saints, Revelations 14: 14-16, and their enthronement in Revelations 20: 3-6.  The destruction of the Antichrist and his allies, Daniel 7: 25, 26; 12: 7, is the destruction in Revelations 6: 15-17; 11: 18; 19: 11-21; 14: 20, at Jerusalem.  The kingdom in victory underneath all heavens, Daniel 7:  27; 2: 44, is the kingdom in Malthew 25: 34, and in Revelations 11: 15, and 20: 6, and 12: 10.


In Revelations 14. John sees the Zenith-Angel flying in the path of the sun, uttering the last call of the Everlasting Gospel to the nations on the earth, and urging men to repentance. - He sees another Angel in the air proclaiming the doom of Rome, the corruptress of all the nations of the earth. He sees another still, and hears him threatening divine wrath on all apostates of the Antichristian time.  It is the climax of the Tribulation.  It is God’s last merciful and faithful appeal even to an Antichristian world, the angels symbolising those whom God will raise up as messengers to make the last call of His mercy to mankind in this present age, and the last faithful warning of the Lord’s Coming and impending Judgment.  The martyrs are falling, the last blood-witnesses of Jesus.  Interposed is a benediction from heaven upon their graves: “Blessed are the dead, the slaughtered ones in the Lord, from now on; Yes, saith the spirit; that they may rest from their labours; for their works follow with them.” (14: 13.)  From now on” they are blest, because their works meet now their full reward.  It means their resurrection.  Any moment, then, the Lord may come.  And He comes!  John sees what Daniel saw and the Lord Himself foretold, “One like the Son of Man on the clouds,” but “having on His head a golden crown (the crown of life symbol of the resurrection) and a sharp sickle in His hand.”  It is Matthew 13: 39-43.  And now that Christ is cloud-seated in the air, the order-bearing angels bring to Him the word from God the Father to commence and execute the judgment.  With loud voice the Harvest-Angel delivers the command to Him who sits on the cloud.  Thrust in the sickle and reap, for the harvest of the earth is over-ripe.”  Man’s wickedness is great, and the time to separate the holy living ones has come.  The earth is reaped, the wheat separated from the chaff, and with the holy risen ones, both are raptured to meet the Lord in the air.  It is after the sixth vial.  It is Armageddon-time.  It is Matthew 24: 40, 41.  Next John sees the Vintage-Angel descending from the Temple in Heaven, yet waiting till the Altar-Angel follows and cries with a loud voice again to the cloud-seated Son of Man, “Thrust in thy sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe.”  The earth’s corrupted vine is reaped, its clusters piled into the wine-press of the wrath of God outside the city of Jerusalem.  The blood flows up to the horses’ bridles, discolouring the streams and rivers, bridle-deep, 1,600 furlongs off.  It is the land of Palestine that is the theatre of war.  The scene is the Valley of Jehoshaphat, that Joel saw, as did Isaiah and Zechariah.  It is the settlement of what we call the “Eastern Question” in the “Great Day of God Almighty”; the same judgment pictured further on under the rider on the White Horse from an opened heaven.  Such the programme-chapter developing the events of the 70th week, first mentioned in the prophet Daniel.


After a special introduction to the vials, in Revelation 15., comes the final group of seven visions, the vial-visions in chapter 16., showing the mode in which what was programmed in 15. is fulfilled.  The first four vials, poured upon the earth, sea, river sources, and the sun in Europe, Asia, and Africa, poison the waters so needful for man, and infect the atmosphere and land with plagues made terrible by the scorching heat of the sun.  It may imply great naval and military warfare, East and West alike: the hot, bleak mountains and the arid sands burning the feet of Anti-christian hosts, and scorching their heads; where water is, yet “not a drop to drink,” the carnage is so great; the world still impenitent and still blaspheming.  The fifth vial spreads darkness over the seat and the kingdom of the Antichrist, darkness thick as that of Egypt; Jerusalem is darkened, as at the Crucifixion.  Sun, moon, and stars refuse to shine.  In the East the Euphrates is dried up under the sixth vial, to speed the march of the allies of the Antichrist to Armageddon.  The kings of the whole earth, now quarrelling among themselves, meet, with their armies, in the Holy Land for the last struggle. (Rev.16: 12-16.) “Behold, I come as a thief! Blessed is he that watcheth.”  It is the Advent, the Resurrection-Time.  Then the seventh vial, “the Vial of the Consummation.” Done!”  The last act of the tragedy of the Warfare Great is completed, amid atmospheric phenomena of rapidly alternating heat and cold, earthquake, cosmic phenomena, Olivet sundered, Holy Land upheaving and subsiding, cities falling, mountains disappearing, islands fleeing away, Rome’s place subgulfed, hailstones a talent’s weight smiting the foe, the wicked calling on the rocks to hide them from the face and wrath of the Lamb.  Specially, and after the explanations given in chapters 17 and 18., John hears the thundering Hallelujahsin Heaven over the fall of apostate Christendom, and the announcement that the time of the marriage of the Lamb to His long-divorced but now repentant “wife,” New-Born Israel, has come.  The vision closes with the picture of the Antichrist’s destruction (Rev. 19: 11-21), the binding of Satan and the resumption of the resurrection scene in order to connect it with the kingdom of the one thousand years, (Rev. 20: 1‑6.)  So ends our present age.  So comes the kingdom of God to victory under all heavens.  The Colossus has become as “the chaff of the summer threshing floor.”  The nations, purged by judgment, and destruction of the wicked who have failed to see the hand of God and refused to hear the last call of the Gospel, are saved.  It is God’s “strange work.”  I will sing of judgment, and of mercy; unto thee, 0 God, I will sing” (Psalm. 101: 1.)  Thus has John unfolded and filled, in detail, the Vision of Judgment seen by Daniel in chapter 7., and expanded in our Lord’s Olivet Discourse.  The unity of prophecy is indestructible.  A millennial age before the Lord comes is impossible.  Only through the Messianic Judgment can the world ever attain to an age of universal righteousness and peace.  This, the concert of all the prophets; Christ and His Apostles.



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Ezekiel’s great prophecy, chapters 38. and 39., exhibits the war march of the Northern power, in the last days, against Palestine, for the purpose of acquiring wealth and territory, the Jews having returned in large numbers to their land, dwelling peacefully, and engaged in agricultural and commercial pursuits.  It is a state of things impossible except by consent of the Ottoman power.  The line of Gog’s march is from north to south, then, turning westward, crossing the Euphrates, moving through Syria towards the Holy Land; yet southwardly also, gathering the nations around him as he goes, and subsidising to his standards the Ethiopians and the Lybians, i.e., the tribes of North and South Africa.  On the western side of Palestine he moves from the Crimean region, the land of the Gomer or the Gimirra of the inonments, the Kinimerians or Gomerites, and doubtless through the Dardanelles to the AEgean Sea and the Mediterranean, turning eastward to Palestine, with his ships of war. His march is challenged by Arabia and the Mediterranean nations, including the British Isles, as they were included in ancient times in the term “Tarshish,” which passed from its local significance (Tartessus opposite Gibraltar) to a wider one, involving the whole commercial trade of the West upon the Middle Sea.  In concert with these are their colonial dependencies, represented as the “young lions,” i.e., the princes or rulers who govern them.


The question of critical interest is this: Is Ezekiel’s “Gog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” the same as the “Little Horn” in Daniel 7., the “prince to come” in 9., and “the king” in 11: 36-45?  An eminent writer on the Book of Revelations, Prof. Fehrmann, of the University of St. Petersburg, Russia, asserts the identity, saying “Gog is the Antichrist” (Offenbarung, p. 143), like Kliefoth, of Mecklenburg, Germany.  I cannot so understand it.  There are similarities between them, in their relation to Israel and the Holy Land.  But similarity is no proof'of identity.  Antiochus, Gog and the Antichrist cannot be identified as one.  The differences are great.  The Horn in Daniel belongs to the Roman Empire in its final form.  Gog belongs to the Caucasus, and dwells in the high north, outside that empire.  (Ezek. 38. 15; 29: 2.)  Gog makes no covenant with the Jews.  He descends from the steppes of Europe and Asia, gathers the nations in his train, compelling some against their will, and compelled to be a “guard” over them, lest they are induced to turn against him.  Satirically, the prophet bids him “beware.”  Like the Antichrist, he is full of Antisemitism, a hater of Israel since God declares, “0, Gog, I am against thee!”  As the power ruling the north, he “comes against” the Antichrist. (Dan. 2: 40.) The Anti-christ’s destruction is at Jerusalem. (Dan. 2: 45.)  Gog’s grave is in the Valley of the Crossers over, east of the Mediterranean Sea, the Valley of Megiddo, the plain of Esdraelon. (Ezek. 39: 11.)  Joel sees both Gog and the Antichrist, sees both the “Valley of Decision” and the “Valley of Jehoshaphat.” His word for “multitudes” in the “Valley of Decision” is “Hamonim” (Joel 3: 14), and Gog’sgrave” is called “Hamon-Gog” (Ezek. 39: 15), and his memorial city “Hamonah” (Ezek. 39: 16).  Both Gog and the Antichrist, though from different motives, are against Israel in that day, and God is against both.


From all it seems evident that Gog is not the Antichrist, and that the invasion of Palestine by Gog follows its invasion by the Antichrist, and occurs under the 6th Vial, when the kings, not only from the East, but “of the whole world,” are gathered at Har-Magedon (Armageddon). (Rev. 16: 14-16.)  The last campaign of the Antichrist is in Daniel 2: 40-45; that of Gog is in Ezekiel 38: 4-12, 15, 16.  The result in each case is the destruction of both, the deliverance of Israel, the victory of the kingdom and the sanctification of God’s great name among all nations.  That is the end of the “Warfare Great.”



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* NOTE BY EDITOR OF BRITISH EDITION. – One of the strongest proofs of the inspiration of Daniel’s prophecies will be the formation of ‘the Allied Ten-kingdomed Confederacy and the subsequent rise of an Eleventh Little Monarch, who will make a seven years’ covenant with the Jews, in fulfilment of Daniel 7: 24 and 9: 27.


If our Lord and His Apostles regarded the Book of Daniel as containing the most explicit prophecies of Himself and His kingdom, why did they never appeal or even allude to it, to prove that he was the promised Messiah?  How came it that neither Christ nor His Apostles ever once alluded, or even pointed, to the Book of Daniel and the Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks, as containing the least germ of evidence in favour of Christ’s Mission or the Gospel preaching?” - Such is the objection urged against Daniel in a book by a Higher Critic.


This is simply the reproduction of Kuenen in his “Prophets of Israel,” a work he ordered to be suppressed as death drew near.  The assumption is that no such appeal was made, and the conclusion is that the Book of Daniel has nothing to do with Jesus Christ, or with any events under the Roman Empire.  Such the Higher Criticism!  The assumption and conclusion are alike false.  Both Christ and His Apostles “alluded,” “appealed” and “pointed  to the Book of Daniel and his 70 weeks’ prophecy, and many times, in proof of his Messiahship.  That book was the most popular and best-read book of all the Old Testament in the days of Christ.  The Jewish nation, the High Priest, the Sanhedrin, all regarded it as Messianic.  The burning question of the day was the Messiahship of Jesus.  Art thou the Christ?”  Many other proofs He adduced from other books of the prophets in connection with His person, words and works, yet to none did He appeal more powerfully than to those in the Book of Daniel.  The great polemic between Himself and the Jews involved that book, and especially the seventy weeks prophecy; since, according to that prophecy, Messiah must have “come” and been “cut off” between the building and destruction of the second Temple.  It is our contention with the Jews, to-day, the very centre of our demonstration, that “Jesus” is “the Christ,” a suffering Messiah, risen, ascended to heaven, and to come again in the clouds of heaven.  Either “Jesus” is the Messiah,” or the Book of Daniel is false, and the books of other prophets also.  The “cutting off” of Messiah was predicted in Daniel 9: 25 to be at the close of the 69th week.  Gabriel, moreover, who gave that prophecy, had come to preside over its fulfilment, announcing the birth of “Prince Messiah” as that of “Christ the Lord.”  The proofs of the falsity of Canon Farrar’s assumptions are abundant.


1. The debate of Jesus with the Jews, recorded in John.  As Messiah, asserting His judicial supremacy and authority to hold the Messianic judgment and bring to pass the resurrection and the life, which Daniel predicted (Dan. 12: 2, 3; 7: 13), He said: “I am the Resurrection and the Life.” (John 11: 25.)  Still more: “The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, and hath given Him authority to execute judgment because He is the Son of Man” – i.e., because He is the One described in the Vision of Judgment in the Book of Daniel.  Again, “The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live” (John 5: , 25, 27) - act fulfilled in the resurrection of Lazarus and at the crucifixion, and yet to be fulfilled in the last day.  The “appeal” is direct to Daniel 7., with which Daniel 12. is inseparably connected.  All the reader has to do is to attach Daniel 12. to the close of Daniel 7. and see the connection.  So well was the allusion known, that to have named the Book of Daniel would have been no less superfluous than to tell us to-day that the recital of the resurrection of Lazarus may be found in the Gospel of John.  From the vision in Daniel 7. the title “Son of Man” – “Bar Enash - given to the Messiah, was taken and used by Jesus, the Jews and the Apostles, eighty-four times in the New Testament.  The appeal to the Book of Daniel to prove that Jesus was the “Son of Man” and “Son of God,” i.e., Son of the “Father,” the “Ancient of Days,” and therefore “Messiah,” and that to Him the judgment, the resurrection, and the life were committed, could not have been more direct.  The Jews so understood it, and “marvelled” that the Nazarene assumed to Himself prerogatives pertaining only to God.  It asserted no less than the supernatural constitution of the person of Messiah as both God and Man, and, therefore, of Jesus Himself.  Jesus did “appeal,” “allude,” and “point” to the Book of Daniel in proof of His Messianic claims.  It is a Messianic book, and does predict events under the Roman or Fourth Prophetic Empire, in spite of the critics, and of Farrar, their second and third hand imitator and repeater.


2. The Answer to the High Priest. In a paroxysm of rage the High Priest, contesting the claims of Jesus, vociferated, “I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Messiah, the son of God!” Caiaphas himself is alluding and pointing to Daniel 7. as well as to other prophecies.  Could the answer be misunderstood?  Hereafter ye shall see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.” (Matt. 26: 63, 64.)  Vain the effort of the critics, saying that the name of the book is not mentioned!  The whole Sanhedrim, understood it and condemned Him to death for blasphemy.  It is needless to say that Jesus identified Himself with the “Son of Man,” in that judgment scene.  That he did so in His Mount Olivet discourse, two days previously, is self-evident. (Matt. 24: 29-31.)


3. Again, did our Lord never once “appeal,” or so much as “allude” or “point” to the seventy weeks’ prophecy? “These are the words I spake unto you while yet I was with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in Psalms, concerning Me.  Then opened He their understanding that they might understand the Scriptures, and said unto them, Thus it is written and thus it behoved Messiah to suffer and to rise again from the dead the third day.  And, beginning at Moses and all the prophets, He expounded unto them, in all the Scriptures, the things concerning Himself.” (Luke 24: 27, 44, 45.)  Here is a dispute between us and the Jews.  They refuse to admit a suffering Messiah. Only five days before this exposition He had dignified Daniel as “Daniel the Prophet,” and, in keen foresight of the Higher criticism of our times, as well as in reproof of the critics of His own time, uttered these words - a crushing testimony which the Higher Critics try to deny on the authority of two corrupted codices where the expression is omitted!  That Daniel’s book was a part of the Old Testament “Scriptures cannot be denied.  Nor can it be denied that the Book of Daniel, as we have it, was the standard Palestinian and Temple text of the prophet turned into Greek two hundred and fifty years before Christ was born, and accepted by the Jews, Christ and His Apostles, as part of the God-breathed and closed canon of the Scriptures, authoritative in the mouth of Christ.  Nor can the critics deny that the seventy weeks’ prophecy is the only prophecy in that book which foretells that Messiah should be “cut off.”  Nor will it be denied that the rubric, “the Psalms,” because of their place at the head of this whole “Third Division” of the Jewish Scriptures, was a title given to the whole of that division, in which the “Book of Daniel” stood prominent.  The conclusion is irresistible that, since our Lord expounded “in all the $criptures the things concerning Himself.”  He did not omit to refer to Daniel 9: 26, containing a signal prediction of His own death, and so did “appeal,” “allude” and “point” to the seventy weeks’ prophecy where that prediction occurs, and only there in Daniel’s book.  It is the companion-piece of Isaiah 53: 4-13; Zechariah 11: 10-13; 13: 1, 7; Psalms 22: 1-21.  Had the Lord only “opened the understanding” of the critics, their eyes would have seen things now for ever hid from them.


4. But, more.  Our Lord’s answer as to the destruction of Jerusalem, His Advent, and the End of the Age is built, step by step, on the Book of Daniel, and appropriates even the terms used by the prophet in his prediction of the seventy weeks.  He combines in His Olivet Discourse the events found in the closing parts, or Ends of Daniel, chapters 2., 7., 9., 11., and the whole of 12. - i.e., the events under the Roman Empire - in one connected prophecy, uses again the title “Son of Man,” again confirming His claims by the Book of Daniel.  It is His guide.  In Matthew 23: 32, introducing that discourse, and taking leave of the Temple, the words “Fill ye up the measure of your fathers” are a direct allusion to the verb “lecalle,” to “fill up” or “complete the transgression” in Daniel 9: 24.  He points to the “abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the Prophet.” (Matt. 24: 15; Dan. 9: 27; 11: 31; 12: 11.)  He interprets Daniel’s expression, “Unto the End, war” (Dan. 9: 26), as “Until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled” (Luke 21: 24), and in all shows that He is the Messiah of the seventy weeks’ prophecy, and will come in the clouds of heaven, raise the dead, destroy the Antichrist, deliver Israel, judge the nations, and bring His kingdom to victory.  Thus did heappeal,” “allude,” and “point” to Daniel’s book, and alfirm that it contained explicit prophecies of “Himself” and His “kingdom,” even of His “Messiahship.”  To those whose minds are warped by their prejudices, false theories and false science, no book is darker than the sacred Scriptures.


Finally, here.  It is from Daniel 12: 3 our Lord takes His illustration of the righteous “shining as the sun in the kingdom of their father,” when the “Son of Man” comes to reap the harvest. (Matt. 13: 44.)  His illustration of the “Stone” grinding to powder is from Dan. 2: 34.  His “Times and Seasons” are Daniel’s “Iddanayya” and Zimnayya(Dan. 2: 21; 7: 25; 12: 7); whose chronology it was not for His disciples then to know. Acts 1: 7, 3:19-21.  Was it from an uninspired novelist, a Maccabaean romancer, a dreaming Haggardist or story-framer, our Lord quoted such expressions?


5. And did the “Apostles” never even “allude” to the Book of Daniel, or the seventy weeks’ prophecy in confirmation of the Master’s claims?  Peter, in his second Pentecostal word, not only appeals to “all the prophets” (Acts 3: 18) and so to Daniel, concerning the sufferings of Christ, but expressly to the “Iddanayya and “Zimnayya” of refreshing and restitution for Israel, in connection with the finishing of Israel’s apostacy (Acts 3: 19-21; Dan, 9: 24).  He boldly says that “all the prophets, from Samuel and those that follow after” - therefore Daniel – “have foretold these days,” (Acts 3: 24.)  In his first Epistle (1 Pet. 1: 10, 11) he speaks of the prophets as searching what and what manner of time” the Holy Ghost signified when He “foretestified the sufferings of Messiah and the glories after these,” using the very verb (binthi) in Daniel 9: 2, and so “alludes” and “points” to the seventy weeks’ prophecy. (Dan. 9: 1-28.)  Paul’s description of the “Man of Sin,” in 2 Thessalonians 2: 3-8, is drawn from Daniel 8: 11, 12; 11: 36, 37; 9: 27; 12: 7.  The special Iddanayya” and “Zimnayya,” or “Times and Seasons,” in 1 Thessalonians 5: 1, are those named by Daniel, and the scene at the close of the Tribulation (2 Thess. 1: 7, 8) - the coming of the Lord with His mighty angels - is taken from Daniel 7: 13, and from its repetition in Matthew 24: 29-31; 25: 31-46.  Still more he vouches for the truth of the historical parts of Daniel’s book by “appeal,” “allusion” and “pointing” to Daniel and his companions, who “stopped the mouths of lions,” “quenched the violence of fire” and “escaped the edge of the sword” on the plains of Dura, to the brave Maccabees whose heroism Daniel foretold (Heb. 11: 33-35; Dan. 6: 22; 3: 25; 2: 13; 11: 32), and to the resurrection in Daniel 12: 23.  In 1 Corinthians 15: 41 he takes his star-illustration of the Resurrection - Glory from Daniel 12: 3.  When in Galatians 4: 4, he speaks of the “fulness of the time” when Messiah was born, he alludes directly to the close of the sixty-ninth week, and so “appeals” and “points” to the seventy weeks’ prophecy in confirmation of the Messialiship of Jesus.


And as to John’s testimony to the “Book of Daniel” and the “seventy weeks’ prophecy,” in connection with the Cloud-Comer and Destroyer of the Antichrist, it is simply overwhelming.  His Apocalypse rests on “Daniel’s book,” on the “seventy weeks’ prophecy,” the interval between the sixty-ninth and the seventieth weeks and the sevpntieth week especially, and on the Olivet Discourse, as already has been shown in previous discussions.  Especially in Revelations 14: 14-20 does he use the title, the “Son of Man,” and develops in seven acts the scene in Daniel 7: 13.


Thus both Jesus and His Apostles, notwithstanding the Higher Critics, false assumptions, did “appeal,” and “allude” and “point,” many times and argumentatively, to the “Book of Daniel” and the “seventy weeks’ prophecy” in direct confirmation of the Messianic claims of Jesus as the Great Sufferer, the Raiser of the dead, the Giver of Life and the Judge of all mankind.  I am the Resurrection and the Life.”  To deny this is to deny the New Testament.


6. We have dwelt at some length on this matter here, because the “Book of Daniel” is one of the great battlefields of the Higher Criticism, so called. The critics assail its Messianic character with rare ferocity-unguibus et rostris.  They bury talons and beak into its flesh, clawing its vitals, i.e., its genuineness and authenticity, its historic credibility, its miracles, its supernatural prophecies, its integrity, its Messianity, its eschatology, its reliability its inspiration.  The whole question, whether these peerless pages were written by an exilic Daniel, or are forged documents, compiled and redacted by a Maccabaean novelist - a story book like Rasselas, or novel like Ivanhoe, Daniel Deronda or the Arabian Nights - lies here.  The denial of their genuineness and authenticity is the denial of the “Book” and the conviction of New Testament eschatology as a dream suggested by fables.


The motive of the crusade against the book is the same as .that of their assault on every other book of the Bible. It is wholly in the interest of what they call their “scientific method,” whose first “working-rule” is the denial and exclusion of the supernatural.  Once admit the genuineness and authenticity of the book, that it was written in exilic times by “the Prophet Daniel,” and it is no longer, possible to deny the reality of miracles and far-sighted prophecy which history has verified.  The “scientific method” and the “working-rule” go to the “tomb of the Capulets.” “0thello’s occupation’s gone!”  Half-and-half expedients are alike exegetically and critically inadmissible.  If genuine, it is authentic.  If not authentic, it is not genuine.  It is both.  The proofs of its Messianity and of its fulfilment so largely already are legion, and never can be sterilised by critical devices.  Its language is a coin that can never be demonetised so long as the whole New Testament eschatology is of par value with its image and its superscription.  The objective point of the whole criticism is the compromise of the character of Christ and his conviction, either as a politician knowing Daniel’s book to be a fable, yet yielding to the popular belief that it was genuine, thus supporting his Messianic claims by fraud, or as a dupe, innocent and victimised by the Jewish Scribes and false traditions, and ignorant of its character.  The outcome of the criticism is to undermine the authority of Christ in His person and prophetic office, extinguish His glory as the “Light of the World,” and reduce the Gospel to a system of “Ethics,” “Humanitarianism” and “Sociology.”  The evidence of this is manifold.  The argument of the critics, that the Jewish belief in the divine authority of Daniel’s book “proves only that it was in the Jewish canon, and is of no more value than the story of the sojourn of Jonah in the belly of the whale,” is not only a bad logic and an empty sneer, but spins upon the pivot of the “working-rule,” and hums and drones its old objections against the character of Jesus, whose belief was that of the Jews.  It is a public disgrace to Christendom that any man (like a certain canon) should be accepted as a Christian teacher who instructs the Church that the Vision of the Son of Man in Clouds (Dan. 7.), and the prophecy of “Messiah” (Dan. 9.), have nothing to do with Jesus Christ.  It gives the lie to Christ Himself.


Should a wise man utter vain knowledge and fill his belly with the east wind?” (Job 15: 2.)  The flukes of the truth and divine authority of Daniel’s book are too firmly anchored in the Rock of Ages to suffer the book to be endangered by the assumptions, conjectures, exclusions, illicit processes of the critics, and their scientific method.  The inerrant “Teacher sent from God” stands before us as the Interpreter of the Old Testament. Beginning with Moses, He expounded the Law in His Sermon on the Mount, and its ceremonial teaching in His sacrifice upon the cross.  Beginning with Isaiah, in the Synagogue, He expounded the prophets, showing that they spake of Him.  Beginning with David, He expounded the Psalms down to His dying day.  A Critic He was against the higher critics of His time who would deny to Daniel the rank of a “prophet,” and against the critics of our time who do deny to Daniel and to Moses the authorship of “Scriptures” dictated by Himself.  A critic He was against the lower critics who sought to break the Scripture and make vain the Word of God by their traditions; a critic He was against Satan himself, who first redacted the ninetieth Psalm, then falsely quoted it.  In all things, moral, religious, textual and critical, He asserted His superiority, and confounded the Scribes and the priests.  From Him, and by His Spirit, the Apostles learned to read and understand the Old Testament; and for us, to-day, He is our Teacher, if we will but hear His voice.  It is enough to know that the whole question of the supernatural - of miracles and prophecy - comes at last to be no less than one concerning the person and authority of Jesus Himself, a question whose solution depends upon the recognition of a personal God on the one hand, able to produce such a Person, and, on the other hand, upon the credibility of human testimony, which cannot be discredited by lack of this or that man’s experience, or lack in this or that age, nor by any preconceived conclusions or assumptions built on sceptical grounds.  To this it comes at last, “Christ or the critics‑which?” and to a true believer the answer can neither be difficult nor doubtful.  Each man must choose for himself, and with the full consciousness that “whosoever shall fall on this Stone shall be broken, but on whomsoever it sha1l fall it will grind him to powder!”



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The word “ChiliasmmcangMillennialism,” or the doctrine of “the 1,000 years in Rev. 20: 1-6, the Greek

words for which are, in English letters, “Chilia Etea thousand years.” It stands for “Pre-Millennialism,” by which is meant that the Second Advent of Christ in Daniel and the Revelation, as in all the Scriptures, is “Pre,” or before the “thousand years” ; i.e., the Advent comes before the kingdom in victory, and is therefore a Pre-Millennial Advent.  This is an explanatory word.


Professor Atzberger, an eminent Roman Catholic writer and post-millennialist, has recently asked the question, “How do the Old Testament prophets relate themselves to C hiliasm?”  With great frankness he says, “Many times their prophecies are so delivered that it would seem that an earthly kingdom restored to Israel shall follow the End of the Times of the Gentiles.  Especially is that kingdom, which, according to Daniel, shall arise on the overthrow of the Colossus and destruction of the Fourth Beast, spoken of as the kingdom of the 1,000 years in John.  Nothing is more true.  His mode, however, of answering this clear revelation is the following - since he stands in awe of the “Roman Index Expurgatorius,” a sure reminder that he must teach the post-millennialism of the Roman Church, or find his book “prohibited.”  He replies, “But neither Daniel, nor any other prophet, knows of a kingdom only 1,000 years long.”  He says, “The prophets do not distinguish clearly between the stages of the kingdom on earth and the eternal states beyond.  They present the Messianic kingdom as at the close of the present age, without any epochs or stages in the same.  When the prophets picture the future of the kingdom of God, they insensibly pass from this side to beyond, never designating the temporal periods of the kingdom, or the order of their succession, definitely.  Only the idea of the contrast between the humanity that is under the dominion of sin and the humanity redeemed from sin passes before their minds.”  So says Professor Atzberger, University of Munich (“Eschatologie,” p. 95).  I have italicised the words to be denied.  Were the author’s answer correct, no room would be left for his statement, that the prophets “do,” and “many times,” so deliver their prophecies that “it appears that an earthly kingdom restored to Israel shall follow the times of the Gentiles.”  He takes advantage of prophetic perspective in order to deny the clear teaching of the prophets, especially Isaiah, Daniel, Ezekiel and Zechariah, that there are “epochs and stages” in the development of the kingdom of God on earth.  He sees that the kingdom in Daniel is the 1,000 years in John, and “at the close of the present age,” “and underneath the heavens.”  His answer rests (1) upon erroneous statements as to the laws of prophetic representation; (2) upon a spiritualisation of the prophecies; (3) upon a confounding of the Ages and the Ends.


On the other hand, Dr. Paul Dornstetter, less regardful of the “Index,” condemns the post-Nicene rejection of Chiliasm by the Roman Church, and its “spiritualising methods.”  He says, “Not all Chiliasm was condemned by the early Church, but only that gross and sensuous conception of it which prophecy itself condemns.  The conversion of Israel in the Time of the End is foretold by the prophets, and by Christ and His Apostles.  The establishment of the kingdom has, for its pre-supposition, the preaching of the Gospel, firstly, to all nations, then Antichrist’s career, Israel’s conversion and the coming of the Lord.  Haupt spiritualises the prophecies, and finds nowhere any concrete events of the future, but only moral and religious laws dressed up in Oriental drapery.  Renan’s idea that the Millennium is only “a little Paradise in the middle of the earth” is his conceit. The 1,000 years kingdom will be universal.  When Reuss says that this kingdom is “a dogma peculiar to John,” that statement is simply incorrect.  The number, 1,000 years, measures the temporal duration of the victory of the kingdom on earth, achieved at the Second Coming of Christ.  (Dornstetter,“Das End-zeitliche Gottesreich,” pp. 111-144.)


Once more, another recent Roman Catholic author of great ability, Dr. Franz Dusterwald, of Bonn, writes, “Antiochus Epiphanes was a type of the last personal Antichrist, who will be the soul of the Great Tribulation of the Time of the End, the head of the anti-Christian empire of the last times, and chief of a religious war and persecution of the people of God, and after whose annihilation the kingdom comes in triumph.  Of this kingdom the Prophet Daniel speaks his chapters in 2: 44, and 7: 14, 27.  This fifth kingdom clearly will be set up in opposition to the kingdoms of this world.  Already set up, spiritually, the kingdoms of this world stand beside it in conflict, but it comes to victory only with their overthrow.  According to Daniel, this fifth kingdom follows the Messianic Judgment, which is not the final or general judgment of the world.  Among the first Christian expositors of the Book of Daniel stands the holy Hippolytus, whose book is Chiliastic.  To him agreed many in the first four centuries of the Church, and, indeed, not a few.  A gross Chiliasm, which was the product of heretical sects, and awaited a kingdom of sensuous enjoyments, was rejected by the Church.  Otherwise was it with the better Chiliasin.  This a multitude of the fathers of the Ancient Church advocated earnestly.  When Jerome says, “Cesset, ergo, mille annorum fabula”- “Let the fable of the 1,000 years cease,” so has he thereby condemned only the gross Chiliasm, since he remarks of the true, “which, although we do not follow it, yet we dare not condemn, because a multitude of our ecclesiastical men, and the martyrs also, have believed it.”  First in modern times, especially by the Protestants, was Chiliasm defended.  Auberlen has remarked that “Hengstenberg’s defect was the lack of a Biblical Chiliasm.”  For the Catholic Church, Dusterwald adds, “If we remove from us all that is contrary to the true doctrine, then may the expositors of the Book of Daniel not merely admit it, but in the words of Daniel 12: 12, find themselves among the ‘Blessed who wait and come to the 1,335 days.’” (Dusterwald, “Die Weltreiche und das Gottesreich,” pp. 279-280.)


Apart wholly from our personal interest in the coming of Christ, and viewed as a civil and political question in its relation to the nations and the term of Gentile sovereignty over Israel, just as Daniel viewed it, the vital question is, “How long shall the Colossus stand on nationally dead Israel in Israel’s valley of Dry Bones?”  It is the Eastern Question.  By it all other questions are decided in world-historical development.  It is whether the vision of the Cloud-Comer in Daniel 7. means the literal Second Advent of Christ to bring His kingdom to victory, or whether a Golden Age of universal righteousness and peace, when war shall be no more, can run parallel with the “Warfare Great” which that Advent terminates.


Nothing can break the consentient judgment of great scholars, historians and exegetes, as to the witness of the Early Church to the pre-millennial coming of Christ. “It was,” says Gieseler, “the general belief of the Apostolic age.”  It was,” says Mede, “the general belief of all Christians in the age next following the Apostles, and none  but heretics denied it.”  It was,” says Hase, “the old and popular faith.”  The stream of all antiquity ran that way,” says Homes.  Muencher says, “It was almost universally held by all teachers.” Rome was never able to answer the sword-stroke of the great Chillingworth, that “the doctrine was taught and believed by the most eminent fathers of the Church in the age next after the Apostles, and by none of that age opposed or condemned.”  It is the scholarly Burton who affirms, in his Bampton Lectures, that “the early Church’s faith in the pre-millennial Advent of the Lord is beyond successful denial.”  The whole Church,” says Dean Alford, “for three hundred years held it, and it is the most cogent instance of unanimity which primitive antiquity presents.”  And such are the statements of Bindemann, Donaldson, Luthardt, Dorner, Volk, Christiani, and a hundred more that could be quoted.


The latest method of vindicating the evaporation of the prophecies concerning the Jews is the effort of Professor D. E. Haupt, of Halle.


No book of our times surpasses Professor Schnedermann’s of Leipzig for its thorough review of all the recent German writers on the kingdom of God.  It defends triumphantly the Chiliasm of Moses and the Prophets, Jesus Christ and His Apostles.  Beside it stands Yssel’s work, “The Doctrince of the Kingdom of God in the New Testament,” crowned by the Hague Society, also the special work of Schmoller, on “The Doctrine of the Kingdom of God,” both most, thorough and exhaustive in exegeses and criticism, and both, like Schnedermann, maintaining the literal interpretation.  Their defence of Chiliasm is complete and vigorous as it was by the Swiss, Dutch, French and Russian Professors, Godet, Da Costa, De Sauley, Volek and Christiani, and is as victoriously defended by Wolff of Copenhagen, Krueger of Paris, by Cremer, Wahnitz, and scores of scholars of the first rank.



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B.C. 621. Daniel born under the reign of Josiah.


B.C. 606. First capturg of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar; beginning of captivity; deportation of Daniel and his friends.


B.C. Dream of the Colossus.


B.C. 598. Second capture of Jerusalem; Ezekiel deported, and others.


B. C. 586. Third capture of Jerusalem; burning of Temple; first destruction of the city; completed deportation.


B.C. 585. State-concert on the plains of Dura; anniversary of Jerusalem’s fall; the fiery furnace.


B.C. 570. The girdled tree; King’s mania.


B. C. 562. Nebuchadnezzar’s death.


B.C. 561. Accession of Evil-Merodach.


B.C. 555. Accession of Nabonnaid, the father of Belshazzar.


B.C. 558. Accession of Neriglissar.


B.C. 549. Overthrow of the Median Empire of Cyrus.


B.C. 541. Co-regency of Belshazzar, son of Nabormaid, and grandson of Nebuchadnezzar.


B.C. 541. Daniel’s vision of the Great Tribulation and the Second Coming of Christ.


B.C. 538. Vision of the Maccabwan persecution and profanation of the second Temple by Antiochus.


B.C. 538. Defeat of Nabonnaid in Accad by Cyrus.


B. C. 538. Fall of Babylon; death of Belshazzar; Gobryas.


B.C. 538. Accession of Darius the Mede, by authority of Cyrus.


B.C. 538. Prophecy of the seventy weeks.


B.C. 538. Daniel in the lions’den.


B.C. 536. Cyrus sole ruler of Babylon.


B.C. 536. Edict of Cyrus for Jewish liberation; end of captivity; beginning of the restoration; second Temple.


B.C.. 534. Christophany, and vision of the Warfare Great.


B.C. 529. Death of Cyrus.


B.C.?  Death of Daniel.


B.C. 521. Accession of Darius Hystaspes.


B.C. 515. Completion of the second Temple.


B.C. 490. Battle of Marathon.


B.C. 485. Accession of Xerxes the Great.


B.C. 480. Invasion of Greece by Xerxes; Thermopylae; Salamis,


B.C. 465. Accession of Artaxerxes I.


B.C. 458. Ezra’s commission to restore the Temple.


B.C. 444 Nehemiah’s commission to rebuild Jerusalem.


B.C. 430. Close of Nehemiah’s activity; end of the restoration.


B.C. 334. Alexander the Great invades Persia.


B.C. 334, Battle of Granicus.


B.C. 333. Battle of Issus.


B.C. 331. Battle of Arbela.


B.C. 325. Alexander at Shushan.


B.C. 323. Death of Alexander at Babylon.


B.C. 302. Partition of Alexander’s empire.


B.C. 323. Ptolemy E, Soter.


B.C. 312. Seleueus I, Nicator.


B.C. 280. Antiochus I.


B.C. 285. Ptolemy II, Philadelphus.


B.C. 485. Accession of Xerxes the Great.


B.C. 285. Septuagint version of the Old Testament.


B.C. 261. Antiochus IL, Theos.


B. C. 247. Ptolemy III., Euergetes.


B.C. 246. Seleueus II, Kallinikos.


B.C. 226. Seleueus III., Keraunos


B.C. 222. Antiochus III., the Great.


B.C. 221. Ptolemy IV., Philopator.


B.C. 205. Ptolemy V., Epiphanes.


B.C. 187. Seleueus IV.


B.C. 181. Ptolemy VI., Philometor.


B.C. 175. Antiochus IV., Epiphanes.


B.C. 173. First campaign of, against Egypt.


B.C. 170. Second campaign of, against Egypt.


B.C. 170. First campaign of, against Palestine.


B.C. 168. Third campaign of, against Egypt.


B.C. 168. Second campaign of, against Palestine.


B.C. 168. The Maccabaean tribulation; profanation of the second Temple.


B.C. 165. End of the tribulation; cleansing of the second Temple.


B.C. 164. Death of Antiochus‑Epiphanes at Tabae, in Persia.


B.C. 161. Death of Judas Maccabaeus.


B.C. 64. Capture of Jerusalem by Pompey.


B.C. 48. Battle of Pharsalia.


B.C. 45. Debate on prophecy in the Senate House at Rome; the Sybil; Caesar.


B.C. 44. Assassination of Caesar.


B.C. 42 Battle of Philippi.


B.C. 28. Augustus Caesar, first Emperor of Rome.


A.D. 1. BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST, 538 years after the fall of Babylon by Cyrus, i.e., 538 years after Gabriel’s prediction of his “cutting off” to occur at the close of the 69th week of the 70 weeks; and 536 years after the edict of Cyrus for the Jewish liberation.


A.D. 34. Crucifixion of Jesus - common reckoning.


A.D. 70. Second destruction of Jerusalem, by Titus; burning of the second Temple.


From B.C. 28. Duration of the Fourth Prophetic Empire and its kingdoms, i.e., the legs, feet, and toes of the Colossus.  The Fourth Beast, out of whose horns the Little Horn, or last Antichrist, is yet to come, still exists. The Colossus still stands.



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Among the events which will indicate the approaching End of the Age, are



I. Those given in the Old Testament, viz.:


1. The return of the Jews to their own land in numbers sufficient to satisfy the prophecy of Isaiah 11: 11-16.


2. The covenant between the Antichrist and the Jewish masses, whereby they acquire a modus vivendi with the building of their temple, and revival of their ancient worship, the Lord reproving their unbelieving labour. (Isa. 66: 1-4; Dan. 9: 27)


3. The conversion of the Remnant and their persecution by their apostate brethren. (Isa. 56: 5-9)


4. The breach of the covenant between the Antichrist and the Jews, followed by the Great Tribulation (Dan. 9: 27), beginning with the attack of certain Powers upon the Antichrist, and the Antichrist’s Invasion of Palestine. (Dan. 11: 40-45; 12: 1)


5. The gathering of the nations against Jerusalem for the final conflict. (Zeph. 3: 8; Zech. 14: 2; Joel 3: 9-11.)


6. The sanguinary action in the Valley of Jehoshaphat and Valley of Decision. (Joel 3: 12-14;. Isa. 66: 15.)


7. The Cosmic Signs - earthquake, the sundering of the Mount of Olives, the obscuration of the Heavenly Lights, and commotions in heaven and earth. (Zech. 14: 1-5; Joel 3: 15-16; Hag. 2: 6, 7.)



II. Those given in the New Testament.  In the Olivet Discourse the Lord gives the Signs and Events for both the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, and His Parousia, signs common to both, and signs special to the latter. Among the nearer signs are:



1. The appearing of False Christs, coming in His name, (Matt. 24: 5.)


2. Wars, civil and international, disrupting the bonds of amity and peace among nations. (Matt. 24: 6-7.)


3. Cosmic Signs - earthquakes contemporaneous with sporadic famines and pestilence, in different places (24: 7), these the signs and events nearest to us, as they were to the Jews before Jerusalem’s destruction – “the beginning of sorrows.”


Among the Middle Signs:-


4. As to the External History of the Church, a universal hatred and bloody persecution of the saints by the nations.  The extension of missions has for its pre-supposition not only, the reception of the Gospel on the one hand, but its rejection on the other; the conflict of Christianity with the world-powers and the false systems of religion by which they are supported. (24: 9.)


5. As to, the Internal History of the Church.  A Great Apostasy from the truth by unbelieving Christians, a departure from the true faith and life of the Gospel, and a practical return to a worldly and heathen walk aud conversation, by means of false teachers themselves apostate from the truth - unbelief, lawlessness, pleasure, crime and declension of Christian love and vital godliness abounding in professing Christendom. (24: 10-12.)


6. The Progress of Missions at the same time; a universal witness to the Gospel among all nations, during a condition of society such as was in the days of Noah and of Lot. (Luke 17: 26‑30.)  When these two contradictory yet concurrent facts meet in history, great missionary work and great apostasy, then the “End” shall come.



Among the signs remotest from us and nearest to the Advent, are:



7. The Antichrist, the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by “Daniel the prophet,” the Great Tribulation, and false alarms as to the coming of Christ.  The political dechristianisation of the Christian powers, their subserviency to Mammon and Antichristianity, will have advanced with the progress of Christendom in wealth, and its departure from the Gospel and the law of righteousness. What exists, save “Christ’s elect,” is a moral “carcass” fit only for the eagle’s beak. (Matt. 24: 15, 21-26, 28; Jas. 1: 5-7.) Christendom will be as morally corrupt as it will be architecturally splendid, and, save a faithful few, as dead to Christ and His Spirit as it is alive to Mammon and the work of Satan, under the pretence of “Peace” and  “Reform.”  Money and Peace” will be its curse, all the time preparing for war - Hypocrisy its policy, Unbelief its creed.


8.  The culmination of the Apostacy, under the teachings of false Christs and false prophets, the frog-croaking ministers of the Antichrist and the False Prophet, deceiving the world by means of great signs and wonders, assailing the truth and proclaiming “the lie” that Christ and Christianity are a fraud.  (Matt. 24: 24; Rev. 13: 5-18; 16: 14.)


9. The Conversion of the Jews and the Gathering of the Nations against Jerusalem. (Matt. 23: 39: 25: 32.)


10. The Cosmic Signs next to the Advent, viz., Obscuration of the Heavenly Lights, Meteoric Showers, the Concussion of the Heavens, Earthquakes, Distress, Perplexity, Terror and Apprehension, the Sea roaring. (Matt. 24: 29; Luke 21: 25, 26.)  Then the Son of Man Himself, His own Sign, in the clouds of heaven. (Matt. 24: 30.)



Such are the signs and events that “must needs come to passbefore the Second Coming of Christ.  How many of these are in the field now is for the judgment of enlightened men to determine.  As to the Nearer Signs, there can be no question.  As to the Middle Signs, the only question is how long they will continue until the latest ones enter.  That they are present in their measure is undeniable.  That both the signs nearest to us and the middle signs contemporate and cumulate, in our day, cannot be disputed.  The conversion of the world is nowhere a sign of the End in any book of Scripture, and any judgment based upon a presupposition so gratuitous is worthless.  Nowhere has the Saviour said, “When the world is universally converted, then the End shall come,” but this, “When the Gospel [of the kingdom] has been testified to all nations, then the End shall come.” Nowhere is the Divine commission to witness to the Gospel in all lands, instructing all nations in the truth, and so discipling them, any pledge that the measure of true conversions will equal the universality of the command.  It never has done so in any nation, city, town or village of the world, and never will in this present [evil] age.  That vision is reserved for the future [millennial age] after the Antichrist is destroyed and Satan is bound.  Only then “all nations shall come and worship before the Lord; because His judgments shall be manifested,” and that is when the Antichrist and his kingdom are destroyed, and the Colossus of Gentile politics and power has become aa the “chaff of the summer threshing-floor.”  It is after Israel has been converted to the Lord, and their kingdom is restored. (Dan. 9: 24; 7: 27; 2: 44.)


The dream that the “Arbitration” of international disputes will introduce the universal reign of righteousness and peace before the Lord comes, is superficial.  It is the honest but misguided view of many Christians.  It is the scheme that Mammon will approve - the Stockholders’ and the Bondholders’ piety for the sake of money.  The scheme was tried in ancient times.  Argos, Lacedaemon and the Greek States had an “Arbitration Treaty” that lasted fifty years, then vanished away.  The Italian republics of the Middle Age unsuccessfully attempted the same.  All Europe, under the aegis of the Roman Church, had the “Truce of God” in the 10th century, which was broken in the 11th.  When the Crystal Palace hove into view, at Sydenham, publicists announced that the “Era of Universal Peace” had come.  International acquaintance and the spirit of Christianity were regarded as certain to bring speedily the long-esired result.  More recent efforts among the most Christian nations have failed, for insuperable reasons.  The ambitions of men, the rivalries of human governments, the power of sin and the unchained privilege of Satan defy a universal concert of the nations in terms of universal righteousness and peace.  The diplomatic catch-word, “Peace with honour,” beguiles only the sentimental and the inexperienced.  A multitude of wars have crimsoned sea and land since Tennyson sang the time when:‑


The war-drum throbs no longer, and the battle-flags are furled

In the Parliament of man, the federation of the world.”


Lord Russell, Chief Justice of England, calls it a “poetic dream” for this age, remarking that “Europe is pretty well civilised now, but all talk of a general disarmament is invariably received with a smile” - the smile of Christian Europe!  The fact is that the nations cannot trust each other, and are confronted with conditions where “Peace with honourcannot be maintained.  Nor can the “Day of the Lord,” that will “burn as an oven,” be arbitrated away from the Word and the purpose of God, with whom the judgment of the nations is a divine necessity.  Peace with Shame, Disgrace, Dishonour, coffers filled with money - Peace with oppression and injustice - while guilty Christendom, unmoved, beholds massacre and murder by the Turk and the Spaniard, year after year, and the United States Government, ruled by the money-kings, under the plea of “Peace,” withholds armed intervention in behalf of justice, humanity and liberty, the blood of 600,000 starved and butchered Cuban men, women and children, crying for deliverance.


And far away from the heart of the Church, as a practical power, does the idea of the “universal conversion of the worldremove the hope of the Coming of the Lord.  Christendom [mistakenly and blindly] expects the conversion of the world before the Lord comes. T he facts satisfy us that this also is a “poetic dream.”  If we consult the most reliable statistics as to the progress of Christian missons - furnished by, Mullhall, Stunhall, Lavoisier, Fournier de Flaix, Pinkerton, Fabri, Vahl, the Royal Geographical Society, the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Behm’s Bureau of Statistics, in Berlin, and the A. B. C. F. M. Almanac for 1897 - we shall get as correct a view as is possible in this branch of investigation.  In 1800 the population of the globe was 700,000,000, the Christian population, including all the unconverted in Christendom, being 196,204,000, or 28 per cent. of the whole.  In 1897, a century later, the population of the globe is 1,500,000,000, the Christian population, qualified as above, being 491,000,000, or 33 per cent. of the whole, the rate of increase of Christendom being relatively 5 per cent. in excess of the rate of increase for the total population of the globe.  That is, nominal Christendom, including all infidels, criminals, unbelievers and rejectors of the Gospel, all corrupt forms of religion, and all its unbelief, is two and a half times greater to-day than in 1800, while yet the increase of Christendom relatively to that of the whole world’s population is only 5 per cent.  If, liberally, we estimate nominal Christianity, including all real converts, at 500,000,000, instead of 490,000,000, there remain still 1,000,000,000 - a thousand millions - in heathendom not yet converted, even as there are millions in Christendom in the same condition.


And what have Continental Europe, Great Britain and Ireland, Canada, Australia, the United States, to show to-day as the converting result of their work in the foreign field?  What the status now, after nearly 19 centuries, and the enormous wealth of modern times? …


Such the showing, the Turk still holding the fairest portions of the world which once were Christian.  If we compare the 2,121,065 of Christians with the 1,000,000,000, what is the ratio of this Christian population, in heathen lands, to the unconverted 1,000,000,000 yet remaining there?  This. 10,000,000 is 1 per cent. of 1,000,000,000, and 2,121,065 is but slightly more than one-fifth of this 1 per cent.; that is, the ratio of the Christian population to the non‑Chrislian in heathendom is a trifle over one‑fifth of 1 per cent. after nearly nineteen centuries.  Concede to the Charch, liberally, all she claims, viz., the Bible translated, in whole or part, into four hundred languages and dialects spoken by nine-tenths of the human race, religious books and tracts scattered by the million and increasingly, 280 missionary organisations, 25,000 auxiliary societies, 12,000 missionaries, 70,000 native helpers of every description, the occupation of vast regions in Asia and Africa, an ever-widening evangelisation, and the number of actual additions in the foreign field, for 1897, as 780,858, still the progress of Christendom, relatively to that of the population of the globe, during 100 years save three is only 5 per cent., and the ratio of Christians in heathendom to the unconverted there is only a little over one-fifth of 1 per cent - the heathen population outrunning that of the civilised nations, Islam outrunning Christianity in many parts of Asia and Africa, Hinduism resisting it, all the heathen religions still in force.  If, after nearly 19 centuries, the most advanced stage of Christian civilisation can only show one-fifth of 1 per cent. as the ratio between converted and unconverted heathendom, how long will it take to convert the heathen world so rapidly increasing, not to speak of the unconverted millions in Christendom?  How long will it take, in face of the clear statements of the Lord that when He comes it will be as it was in the days of Noah and Lot, and of Paul that Apostasy and Antichristianity will prevail, and of all the Prophets, Christ and His Apostles, that Christendom must be judged for its crimes?


Political and international events, whose weight, multitude, rapid emergence and importance have never been surpassed, continue to crowd upon us.  The outward push of a military Christendom, bent on the partition of two continents, is already a fact of daily observation, and threatens a collision, the greatest ever known in history.  The Eastern Question, a dozen Western ones, the world’s horrid armament, the antagonism between capital and labour, the greed of empires, and the struggle to survive, the restlessness and expectation everywhere, touch the deepest life of humanity, already strained with over-tension.  The old question recurs, “How long shall it be to the end?”


It is both sober and justified to say that, viewing the state of Christendom and the world, as it is, in the clear light of prophecy, the remainder of the “Interval” must be relatively short, and the “End” not far away.  In this judgment the best interpreters of prophecy agree.  Many Swiss, German, Russian and Swedish universities now lecture statedly upon the Jewish problem, and the interest taken in the Eastern Question is phenomenal, as Daniel foretold.  Some one is calling out of Seir, “Watchman! what of the night?”


As to the time required for the final formation and arrangement of the ten kingdoms sprung from the old Roman territory, from the nature of modern warfare, though immense fighting must be done, it cannot be greatly protracted.  If we take Van Kampen’s and Kiepert’s maps of the ancient world as it was in time following the prophecies of Daniel and Ezekiel, and compare them with a good modern atlas, we shall realise the situation.  The line between the eastern and western foot of the Colossus runs from Belgrade, across the Mediterranean, to Tunis in Africa.  [On each side at the final crisis five kingdoms of imperial power must stand.]  Six are on the western and three on the eastern side of the line now.  The dismemberment of Austria -Hungary, France going again to the Rhine, the smaller European states swallowed up by the greater, the rending of the Turkish empire, must certainly bring this tenfold division of the kingdoms.  The Ottoman power holds the “bridge” (Asia Minor) between the west and east, and the “bridge” (Palestine) between the north and south.  Here lies the storm-centre of the Eastern Question, nor can the nations have peace, nor can the kingdom of Christ enjoy a universal victory on earth, nor Israel be restored, until both are broken.  That will break the rest.  The evolution of this great question all believers will await with solemn interest.  Professor Sayce has clearly seen, and plainly said, that “whoever holds Palestine will control not only the Mediterranean and Constantinople, but the politics and commerce of the world.”  As to the completion of the evangelisation of the nations, it occurs under the 7th trumpet, contemporary with the Great Tribulation, and is crowned with the Second Coming of the Son of Man, the resurrection of the holy dead, the rapture of the Church, the destruction of the Antichrist, the deliverance of new-born Israel, the judgment of the nations, and the [millennial] kingdom [of Messiah/Christ], Until then, the “Warfare Great” continues.



Till He come” so runs thy line,

Marking off the term of ill;

Darkest hours of power malign

Never more an hour to fill.



Till He come” the might of hell

Still against the saints shall rage,

And, beneath the Tempter’s spell,

Men in strifes and sins engage.



Till He come,” wrong will prevail,

And the right be done in vain;

Truth’s confession still entail

Toil, and obloquy, and pain;

But Our Hope can brook delay,

Waiting such a glorious day!


The word from the watch-tower of the prophet is “The vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end it will speak, and not lie.  Though it tarry, wait for it, because it will surely come; it will not tarry.” (Heb. 2: 3.)  This attitude of patient expectation is of divine commandment.  Amid all vicissitudes the one abiding comfort is this, “Jesus Christ, the Same yesterday, to-day, and for ever.” (Heb. 13: 8.)  The Church’s duty is clear: (1) To give the Gospel, at once, to the neglected parts of heathendom; (2) to work and pray for Israel’s conversion; (3) to save all the souls she can and do all the good she can.  (4) to bear a faithful witness to the truth; (5) to keep herself unspotted from the world; (6) to study earnestly the signs of the times, and (7) to wait, watch, and pray, uttering back the promise of the Lord, “Amen! Even so, come, Lord Jesus!”




… The military aspect of Nineteenth Century Christendom is not without its significance for those who raise the quession. “Is the world growing better?”  If disorder, bloodshed, murder, massacre, swords, bayonets, guns, torpedoes, dynamite, armies and navies are evidence of moral improvement, and the fruit of Christian civilisation, [is] the world … on the rapid road to perfection? …